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Numbers and Number Theory 
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Large Scale 

1 Planck Length ( ℓP ) 
Transition: SmalltoHuman Scale 
1. Display area: Every number/word hyperlinked – quick results display here 2. Options: Open full screen, new tab or window to the research of the experts 3. Also: Related videosimages and online collaborations with up to nine visitors 4. Key Links: http://bblu.org UniverseView.org BigBoardLittleUniverse.org 
Transition: HumantoLarge Scale 
205+ Observable Universe 

2 10 Forms^{1} Vertices:1024 
77 Research ℓP:2.44×10^{12}m 
78 Xray Wavelength 
95 Range: Visible Light 
96 Bacteria Red Light 
113 Handsize^{H} 16.78^{+}cm 
114 Textbook^{T} 12.8^{+}inches 
131 Marathon 27^{+}miles 
132 54+ miles 87.99^{+}km 
204+ Observable Universe 
1120 StructureOusia V: 1^{+}million 
76 Gamma Wavelength 
79 Huang Scale 
94 Nanoparticles 10010000^{+}nm 
97 Blood cell^{R} 2.4^{+}microns(µm) 
112 Fingersize 3.3″(inches) 
115 Things 67.134^{±}cm 
130 Race 21.998^{+}km 
133 Drive 108^{+}miles 
202203+ Observable Universe 
2130 Substances V:1^{+} billion 
75 Falstad Scale 
80 Periodic Table 
93 Gold Leaf^{G} 160.06^{±}nm 
98 Capillary 5.12^{+}microns 
111 Spoonful 4.19^{+}cm 
116 A child 52.86^{±}in 
129 Distances: 6.834^{+}miles 
134 Gravityfree 351.97^{+}km 
198201 Superclusters 6.154^{+}yottometers 
3140 Qualities V:1^{+} trillion 
74 Research 1.52^{+}x10^{13}m 
81 Hydrogen^{H} 31^{±}pm 
92 Nanowires 80.03^{±}nm 
99 Cells 10.24^{±}microns 
110 Makeup^{M} .82^{±}inches 
117 A bed 105.72^{±}inches 
128 Village 3.41^{±}miles 
135 Distance 437.41^{±}miles 
191197 Virgo Supercluster^{3} 
4150 Relations V:1+ quadrillion 
73 Research: Tunneling^{4} 
82 Hydrogen^{H} 78^{+} pm 
91 Little chips^{lc} 40.01^{+}nm 
100 Sperm 20.48^{+}microns 
109 Lipstick^{L} 1.04^{+}centimeters 
118 Bedroom 5.37^{+}meters 
127 Walk 1.7^{+}miles 
136 Fly 874^{+}miles 
181190 Galactic Group^{6} 
5160 Systems The Mind^{M} 
72 Nucleus^{N} 7.63^{+}x10^{14}m 
83 Carbon^{C} 70^{±}pm^{2} 
90 Viruses 20.007^{+}nm 
101 HAIR 40^{+}microns 
108 Diamond^{D} 5.2^{+}mm^{M} 
119 Home 35.24^{+}feet 
126 Downtown 1.37^{+}km 
137 Rivers 2815.81^{+}km 
171180 Milky Way 
6165 Elementary Particles 
71 Gold^{AU Nucleus}^{ } 
84 WATER^{W} 3.12^{+}x10^{10}m 
89 Cell Wall 10^{+}nm 
102 Paper 81.95^{+}microns 
107 Ants 2.62^{+}mm 
120 Property 21.48^{+}m 
125 Superdome 687.45^{+}m 
138 USAtoUK 3500^{+}miles 
161170 Solar^{S} Interstellar 
6567 Neutron ProtonFermion 
70 Aluminum^{Al} 1.90^{+}x10^{14}m 
85 DNA^{D} 6.25^{+}x10^{10}m 
88 Insulin 5.00^{+}x10^{9}m 
103 Egg^{E} .16^{+}millimeters 
106 Sand 1.31^{+}mm 
121 Yacht 142^{+}feet 
124 Skyscraper 343.7^{+}meter^{+} 
139 Earth^{E} 11,263^{+}km 
151160 Solar System^{S} 
68 Helium^{He} 4.77^{+}x10^{15} m 
69 Electron 9.54^{+}x10^{15}m 
86 Buckyballs 1.25^{+}nm 
87 Ribosomes 2.50^{+}nm 
104 >^{.}< Period .32^{+}mm 
105 Bacterium .65^{+}mm 
122 Sequoia 85^{+}meters 
123 Tall Building 171.86^{+}m 
140 GPS Satellite 22526^{+}km 
141150 Earth Systems 
A WORK IN PROGRESS. © 2014 Bruce Camber 
Tag Archives: Universe View
Working Draft: Planck Time, Planck Length & Base2 Exponential Notation
Planck Time to the Age of the Universe 
More articles (workingdrafts): 
PLEASE NOTE: This page was started early in December 2014. There are many simple errors within the chart below, so this page will be subject to frequent updates. Are there any comparison between the progressions from the Planck Time and the Planck Length using base2 exponential notation through the successive doublings out to their given limits, i.e. the Age of the Universe and the Observable Universe respectively? At this point in time, I do not think there are, so we are making our first working draft attempt to do it here. Perhaps it goes without saying… as you read this note, I appeal to you to ask questions and make comments and suggestions. Thank you. –Bruce Camber The Planck Time, like the Planck Length, is an actual value. It can be multiplied by 2. Of course, if one were to multiply it by 2 over and over again, you can assume that you would reach those outer limits. That process looks a bit tedious. After all, the Age of the Universe is somewhere over 13.78 billion years and the Observable Universe is millions of light years from common sense. Yet, rather surprisingly, to complete that effort doesn’t require thousands of doublings. It is done in somewhere between 202 to 206 doublings. That is so surprising, the doublings for both are charted below. These doublings do kindof, sortof end up somewhat in synch. Considering the duration and the length, and the nature of very large measurements, for all intents and purposes, they are synched! Though these charts will be tweaked substantially, the best confirmation is at the notations (or doublings) that define a day in Planck Time units correspond closely to distance light travels in a day in Planck Length units. And, the doublings within the Planck Time column for the definition of a week correspond closely with the distance light travels in a week within the Planck Length column. And, finally, the doublings in the Planck Time column that define a year correspond closely with the distance light travels within a year in the Planck Length column. These are the first baby steps of analysis. How many hundreds of steps are there to go to discern all the faces of its meaning? Who knows? From here, we will continue to look to see what meaning and relation evolves at a Science and our common sense worldview assume the primordial nature of space and time. As a result of our work with the Planck Units, we hold that conclusion up for further inspection. How do things appear as one begins to approach the Planck Length and Planck Time in synch? As we add more Planck Units to this chart, what else might we see? What might we learn? So, we will add mass, electric charge, and temperature to these listings. And then, we’ll add the derived Planck Units (12) and then ask, "Is there anything more we can do to establish a range from the smallest to the largest? What might a comparative analysis at each doubling reveal to us? At this point, we are attempting to learn enough to make a few somewhat intelligent guesses. So, as a result of where we are today, I think it is okay to ask the question, "What would the universe look like if space and time were derivative of ordercontinuity and relationsymmetry, and of ratios where the subjectobject are constantly in tension?" By the way, on May 10, 2010, the very smallest unit of measured time was experimentally demonstrated; the result was 1.2 × 10^{−17} seconds. That is a long way from 10^{−44} seconds! For more background, see: http://phys.org/news192909576.html This stream of consciousness continues at the very bottom of this chart. 
Planck Time Doublings: Primarily in Seconds 
Planck Length Doublings: Primarily in Meters 

204 
The Age of the Universe: 13.78 to 13.8 billion years 
8.310×10^{26} m or Future Universe 
203 
It appears that we are in the earliest part of 202 doubling:10^{19} 
4.155×10^{26} m or Near Future Universe 
202 
6.9309178×10^{18} seconds (21.9777+ billion years)^{18} 
2.077×10^{26} m or in the range of the Observable Universe 
201 
346,545,888,147,200,000 seconds (10.9888+ billion years) 
1.03885326×10^{26} m approaching the Observable Universe 
200 ^{18} 
173,272,944,073,600,000 seconds (5.49444+ billion years) 
5.19426632×10^{25} m 
199 
86,636,472,036,800,000 seconds (2.747+ billion years) 
2.59713316×10^{25} m 
198 
43,318,236,018,400,000 seconds (1.3736+ billion years) 
1.29856658×10^{25} m 
197 
21,659,118,009,200,000 seconds (686.806+ million years) ^{17} 
6.49283305×10^{24} m 
196 
10,829,559,004,600,000 seconds (342.4+ million years) 
3.24641644×10^{24} m 
195 
5,414,779,502,320,000 seconds (171.2+ million years) 
1.62320822×10^{24} m 
194 
2,707,389,751,160,000 seconds (85.6+ million years) 
8.11604112×10^{23} m 
193 
1,353,694,875,580,000 seconds (42.8+ million years) 
4.05802056×10^{23} m 
192 
676,847,437,792,000 seconds (21.4+ million years) 
2.02901033×10^{23} m 
191 
338,423,718,896,000 seconds (10.724+ million years) 
1.01450514×10^{23} m 
190^{15} 189^{14} 188^{14} 187^{14} 186^{14} 185^{13} 184^{13} 183^{13} 182^{12} 181^{12} 
169,211,859,448,000 seconds (5.3+ million years) ^{15} 84,605,929,724,000 seconds (2.6+ million years) ^{14} 42,302,964,862,000 seconds (1.3+ million years) ^{14} 21,151,482,431,000 seconds (640+ thousand years) ^{14} 10,575,741,215,500 seconds (320+ thousand years) ^{14} 5,287,870,607,760 seconds (160+ thousand years) ^{13} 2,643,935,303,880 seconds (83.7+ thousand years) ^{13} 1,321,967,651,940 seconds (41.8+ thousand years) ^{13} 660,983,825,972 seconds (20.9+ thousand years) ^{12} 330,491,912,986 seconds (or about 10,472.9 years) ^{12} 
5.07252568×10^{22} m 2.53626284×10^{22} m 1.26813145 x10^{22} m 6.34065727×10^{21} m 3.17032864×10^{21} m or 3 Zettameters or 310,000 ly 1.58516432×10^{21} m or about 150,000 ly (1.5z) 7.92582136×10^{20} m 3.96291068×10^{20} m 1.981455338×10^{20} m 9.90727664×10^{19} meters 
180^{12} 179^{11} 178^{11} 177^{11} 176^{11} 175^{10} 174^{10} 173^{10} 172^{9} 171. ^{9} 
165,245,956,493 seconds ^{12} 82,622,978,246.4 seconds ^{11} 41,311,489,123.2 seconds ^{11} 20,655,744,561.6 seconds ^{11} 10,327,872,280.8 seconds ^{11} 5,163,936,140.4 seconds ^{10} 2,581,968,070.2 seconds ^{10} 1,290,984,035.1 seconds ^{10} 645,492,017.552 seconds ^{9} 322,746,008.776 seconds ^{9} 
4.95363832×10^{19} m 2.47681916×10^{19} m 1.23840958×10^{19} m 6.19204792×10^{18} m 3.09602396×10^{18} m 1.54801198×10^{18} m 7.74005992×10^{17} m 3.87002996×10^{17} m 1.93501504 x10^{17} m 9.67507488×10^{16} m 
170^{9} 169^{8} 168^{8} 167^{8} 166^{8} 165^{7} 164^{7} 163^{7} 162^{6} 161^{6} 
161,373,004.388 seconds ^{9} 80,686,502.194 seconds ^{8} 40,343,251.097 sec ^{8}(466 days)(Note: 31,536,000 s/year) 20,171,625.5485 seconds (233.468 days)^{8} 10,085,812.7742 seconds (116.73 days)^{8} 5,042,906.38712 seconds (58.36+)10^{7} 2,521,453.19356 s (29.1835 days) 1,260,726.59678 s (14.59+ days) 10^{7} 630,363.29839 s (7.29+ days) 10^{6} 315,181.649195 seconds (3.64794 days) 10^{6} 
4.83753744×10^{16} m 2.41876872×10^{16} m 1.20938436×10^{16} m 6.0469218×10^{15} m [one light year (ly) is 9.4×10^{15} m] 3.0234609×10^{15} m 1.5117305×10^{15} m 7.55865224×10^{14} m 3.77932612×10^{14} m 1.88966306×10^{14} m (about 7day light travel) 9.44831528×10^{13} m 
160^{6} 159^{5} 158^{5} 157^{5} 156^{4} 155^{4} 154^{4} 153^{4} 152^{3} 151^{3} 
157,590.824598 s (1.82 days)10^{6} 78,795.4122988 s (.911984 days) 10^{5} 39,397.7061494 seconds 10^{5} 19,698.8530747 seconds 10^{5} 9849.42653735 seconds 10^{4} 4924.71326867 seconds(3600 s in hour)10^{4} 2462.35663434 seconds 10^{4} 1231.17831717 seconds10^{4} 615.589158584 seconds (10.259+ minutes)10^{3} 307.794579292 seconds 10^{3} 
4.72415764×10^{13} m 2.36207882×10^{13} m (or close to 24hour light travel) 1.18103945×10^{13} m 5.90519726×10^{12} m 2.95259863×10^{12} m 1.47629931×10^{12} m 738,149,657 kilometers 10^{11} 369,074,829 kilometers 10^{11} 184,537,414 kilometers 10^{11} 92,268,707.1 kilometers (range of earthtosun)10^{10}m 
150^{3} 149^{2} 148^{2} 147^{2} 146^{1} 145^{1} 144^{1} 143^{1} 142^{−1} 141^{−1} 
153.897289646 seconds 10^{3} 76.948644823 s (16+ sec over 1 min) 10^{2} 38.4743224115 s (21.53 sec to 1 min) 10^{2} 19.2371612058 seconds 9.61858060288 seconds 4.80929030144 seconds 10^{?} 2.40464515072 seconds 10^{?} 1.20232257536 s (1s ≠ perfect t_{p} multiple) 10^{?} 6.0116128768×10^{−1} seconds 3.0058064384×10^{−1} seconds 
46,134,353.6 kilometers 10^{10} 23,067,176.8 kilometers 10^{10} 11,533,588.4 kilometers 10^{10} 5,766,794.2 kilometers 10^{9} 2,883,397.1 kilometers 10^{9} 1,441,698.55 kilometers 10^{9} m 720,849.264 kilometers 10^{8} 360,424.632 kilometers10^{8} m 180,212.316 kilometers (111,979+ miles)10^{8} m 90,106.158 kilometers 10^{7} m 
140^{−1} 139^{−2} 138^{−2} 137^{−2} 136^{−2} 135^{−3} 134^{−3} 133^{−3} 132^{−4} 131^{−4} 
1.5029032192×10^{−1} seconds 7.514516096×10^{−2} seconds 3.757258048 × 10^{−2} seconds 1.878629024 × 10^{−2} seconds 9.39314512 × 10^{−3} seconds 4.69657256 × 10^{−3} seconds 2.34828628 × 10^{−3} seconds 1.174143145978 × 10^{−3} seconds 5.8707157335 × 10^{−4} seconds 2.93535786675 × 10^{−4} seconds 
45,053.079 kilometers 10^{7} 22,526.5398 kilometers 10^{7} 11,263.2699 kilometers or about 7000 miles 5631.63496 kilometers 10^{6} 2815.81748 kilometers 10^{6} 1407.90874 kilometers (about 874 miles )10^{6}m 703.954368 kilometers 10^{5} 351.977184 kilometers (218.7 miles 10^{5} 175.988592 kilometers (109.35 miles )10^{5} 87.994296 kilometers 10^{4} 
130^{−4} 129^{−5} 128^{−5} 127^{−5} 126^{−5} 125^{−6} 124^{−6} 123^{−6} 122^{−7} 121^{−7} 
1.46767893338 × 10^{−4} s 7.33839466688 × 10^{−5}s 3.66919733344 × 10^{−5} s 1.83459866672× 10^{−5} s 9.1729933336 × 10^{−6} s 4.5864966668 × 10^{−6} s 2.2932483334 × 10^{−6} s 1.1466241667 × 10^{−6} s 5.73312083348 × 10^{−7} s 2.86656041674 × 10^{−7} s 
43.997148 kilometers 10^{4} 21.998574 kilometers10^{4} 10.999287 kilometers or within 6.83464 miles10^{4} 5.49964348 kilometers 10^{3} 2.74982174 kilometers 10^{3} 1.37491087 kilometers 10^{3} 687.455439 meters 10^{2} 343.72772 meters or about 1128 feet 10^{2} 171.86386 meters or about 563 feet 10^{2} 85.9319296 meters 10^{1} 
120^{−7} 119^{−8} 118^{−8} 117^{−8} 116^{−9} 115^{−9} 114^{−9} 113^{−9} 112^{−10} 111^{−10} 
1.43328020837 × 10^{−7} s 7.16640104186 × 10^{−8} s 3.58320052093 × 10^{−8} s 1.79160026046 × 10^{−8} seconds 8.95800130232 × 10^{−9} seconds 4.47900065116 × 10^{−9} seconds 2.23950032558 × 10^{−9} seconds 1.11975016279 × 10^{−9} seconds 5.59875081396 × 10^{−10} seconds 2.79937540698 × 10^{−10} seconds 
42.9659648 meters 10^{1} 21.4829824 meters 10^{1} 10.7414912 meters or 35.24 feet or 1.074×10^{1} m10^{0} 5.3707456 meters 10^{0} 2.6853728 meters or 105.723 inches 10^{0} 1.3426864 meters or 52.86 inches 10^{0} 67.1343176 cm (19.68+ inches or 6.71×10^{1} 33.5671588 centimeters or 3.356×10^{1} m 16.7835794 centimeters or 1.6783×10^{1} 8.39178968 cm (3.3+ inches or 8.39×10^{2} m 
110^{−10} 109^{−11} 108^{−11} 107^{−11} 106^{−12} 105^{−12} 104^{−12} 103^{−12} 102^{−13} 101^{−13} 
1.39968770349 × 10^{−10} seconds 6.99843851744 × 10^{−11} seconds 3.49921925872 × 10^{−11} seconds 1.74960962936 × 10^{−11} seconds 8.7480481468 × 10^{−12} seconds 4.3740240734 × 10^{−12} seconds 2.1870120367 ×10^{−12} seconds 1.09350601835 ×10^{−12} seconds 5.46753009176 ×10^{−13} seconds 2.73376504588 × 10^{−13} seconds 
4.19589484 centimeters 4.19589484×10^{2} m 2.09794742 centimeters or 2.0979×10^{2} m 1.04897 centimeters or 1.04897375×10^{2} m 5.24486856 mm (about 1/4 inch) or 5.24×10^{3} m 2.62243428 millimeters or 2.62243428×10^{3} m 1.31121714 millimeters 1.31121714×10^{3} m .655608568 millimeters or 6.55608568×10^{4} m .327804284 millimeter or 3.27804284 x10^{4} m .163902142 millimeters or 1.63902142×10^{4} m 81.9510712 microns or 81.9510712 x10^{5} m 
100^{−13} 99^{−14} 98^{−14} 97^{−14} 96^{−15} 95^{−15} 94^{−15} 93^{−15} 92^{−16} 91^{−16} 
1.36688252294 × 10^{−13} seconds 6.83441261472 × 10^{−14} seconds 3.41720630736 × 10^{−14} seconds 1.70860315368 × 10^{−14} seconds 8.5430157684 × 10^{−15} seconds 4.2715078842 × 10^{−15} seconds 2.1357539421 × 10^{−15} seconds 1.06787697105 × 10^{−15} seconds 5.33938485524 × 10^{−16} seconds 2.66969242762 × 10^{−16} seconds 
40.9755356 microns or 4.09755356 x10^{5} m 20.4877678 microns or 2.04877678×10^{5} m 10.2438839 microns or 1.02438839×10^{5} m 5.12194196 microns (.0002+ inches or 5.12×10^{6} m 2.56097098 microns or 2.56097098×10^{6} m 1.28048549 microns or 1.2804854×10^{6} m 640.242744 nanometers 6.40242744×10^{7} m 320.121372 nanometers 3.20121372×10^{7} m 160.060686 nanometers or 1.60×10^{7} m 80.0303432 nanometers or 8.00×10^{8} m 
90^{−16} 89^{−17} 88^{−17} 87^{−17} 86^{−18} 85^{−18} 84^{−18} 83^{−18} 82^{−192} 81^{−192} 
1.33484621381 × 10^{−16} seconds 6.67423106904 × 10^{−17} seconds 3.33711553452 × 10^{−17} seconds 1.66855776726 × 10^{−17} seconds (smallest measurement – 2010) 8.34278883632 × 10^{−18} seconds 4.17139441816 × 10^{−18} seconds 2.08569720908 × 10^{−18} seconds 1.04284860454 × 10^{−18} seconds 5.21424302272 × 10^{−19} seconds 2.60712151136 × 10^{−19} seconds 
40.0151716 nanometers or 4.00×10^{8} m 20.0075858 nanometers or 2.00×10^{8} m 1.00037929×10^{8} meters or 10 nanometers 5.00189644×10^{9} meters 2.50094822 nanometers or 2.50094822×10^{9} m 1.25474112 nanometers or 1.25×10^{9} m .625237056 nanometers or 6.25237056×10^{10} m .312618528 nanometers or 3.12×10^{10} m .156309264 nanometers or 1.563×10^{10} m 7.81546348×10^{11} m 
80^{−19} 79^{−20} 78^{−20} 77^{−20} 76^{−21} 75^{−21} 74^{−21} 73^{−21} 72^{−22} 71^{−22} 
1.30356075568 × 10^{−19} seconds 6.5178037784 × 10^{−20} seconds 3.2589018892 × 10^{−20} seconds 1.6294509446 × 10^{−20} seconds 8.147254723 × 10^{−21} seconds 4.0736273615 × 10^{−21} seconds 2.03681368075 × 10^{−21} seconds 1.01840684038 × 10^{−21} seconds 5.09203420188 × 10^{−22} seconds 2.54601710094 × 10^{−22} seconds 
3.90773174×10^{11} m 1.95386587×10^{11} m 9.76932936×10^{12} m 4.88466468×10^{12} m 2.44233234×10^{12} m 1.22116617×10^{12} m 6.10583084×10^{13} m 3.05291542×10^{13} m 1.52645771×10^{13} m 7.63228856×10^{14} m 
70^{−22} 69^{−23} 68^{−23} 67^{−23} 66^{−24} 65^{−24} 64^{−24} 63^{−25} 62^{−25} 61^{−25} 
1.27300855047 × 10^{−22} seconds 6.36504275236 × 10^{−23} seconds 3.18252137618 × 10^{−23} seconds 1.59126068809 × 10^{−23} seconds 7.95630344044 × 10^{−24} seconds 3.97815172022 × 10^{−24} seconds 1.98907586011 × 10^{−24} seconds 9.94537930056 × 10^{−25} seconds 4.97268965028 × 10^{−25} seconds 2.48634482514 × 10^{−25} seconds 
3.81614428×10^{14} m 1.90807214×10^{14} m 9.54036072×10^{15} m 4.77018036×10^{15} m 2.38509018×10^{15} m 1.19254509×10^{15} m 5.96272544×10^{16} m 2.98136272×10^{16} m 1.49068136×10^{16} m 7.45340678×10^{17} m 
60^{−25} 59^{−26} 58^{−26} 57^{−26} 56^{−27} 55^{−27} 54^{−27} 53^{−28} 52^{−28} 51^{−28} 
1.24317241257 × 10^{−25} seconds 6.21586206284 × 10^{−26} seconds 3.10793103142 × 10^{−26} seconds 1.55396551571 × 10^{−26} seconds 7.76982757856 × 10^{−27} seconds 3.88491378928 × 10^{−27} seconds 1.94245689464 × 10^{−27} seconds 9.7122844732 × 10^{−28} seconds 4.8561422366 × 10^{−28} seconds 2.4280711183 × 10^{−28} seconds 
3.72670339×10^{17} m 1.86335169×10^{17} m 9.31675848×10^{18} m 4.65837924×10^{18} m 2.32918962×10^{18} m 1.16459481×10^{18} m 5.82297404×10^{19} m 2.91148702×10^{19} m 1.45574351×10^{19} m 7.27871756×10^{20} m 
50^{−28} 49^{−29} 48^{−29} 47^{−29} 46^{−30} 45^{−30} 44^{−30} 43^{−31} 42^{−31} 41^{−31} 
1.21403555915 × 10^{−28} seconds 6.07017779576 × 10^{−29} seconds 3.03508889788 × 10^{−29} seconds 1.51754444894 × 10^{−29} seconds 7.58772224468 × 10^{−30} seconds 3.79386112234 × 10^{−30} seconds 1.89693056117 × 10^{−30} seconds 9.48465280584 × 10^{−31} seconds 4.74232640292 × 10^{−31} seconds 2.37116320146 × 10^{−31} seconds 
3.63935878×10^{20} m 1.81967939×10^{20} m 9.09839696×10^{21} m 4.54919848×10^{21} m 2.27459924×10^{21} m 1.13729962×10^{21} m 5.68649812×10^{22} m 2.84324906×10^{22} m 1.42162453×10^{22} m 7.10812264×10^{23} m 
40^{−31} 39^{−32} 38^{−32} 37^{−32} 36^{−33} 35^{−33} 34^{−33} 33^{−34} 32^{−34} 31^{−34} 
1.18558160073 × 10^{−31} seconds 5.92790800364 × 10^{−32} seconds 2.96395400182 × 10^{−32} seconds 1.48197700091 × 10^{−32} seconds 7.40988500456 × 10^{−33} seconds 3.70494250228 × 10^{−33} seconds 1.85247125114 × 10^{−33} seconds 9.26235625568 × 10^{−34} seconds 4.63117812784× 10^{−34} seconds 1.15779453196× 10^{−34} seconds 
3.55406132×10^{23} m 1.77703066×10^{23} m 8.88515328×10^{24} m 4.44257664×10^{24} m 2.22128832×10^{24} m 1.11064416×10^{24} m 5.5532208×10^{25} m 2.7766104×10^{25} m 1.3883052×10^{25} m 6.94152599×10^{26} m 3.47076299×10^{26} m 
30^{−35} 29^{−35} 28^{−35} 27^{−36} 26^{−36} 25^{−36} 24^{−37} 23^{−37} 22^{−37} 21^{−37} 
5.78897265978 × 10^{−35} seconds 2.89448632989 × 10^{−35} seconds 1.44724316494 × 10^{−35} seconds 7.23621582472 × 10^{36} seconds 3.61810791236 × 10^{−36} seconds 1.80905395618 × 10^{−36} seconds 9.045269781089 × 10^{−37} seconds 4.522263489044 × 10^{−37} seconds 2.26131744522 × 10^{−37} seconds 1.13065872261 × 10^{−37} seconds 
1.735381494×10^{26} m 8.67690749×10^{27} m 4.3384537×10^{27} m 2.16922687×10^{27} m 1.0846134×10^{27} m 5.42306718×10^{28} m 2.711533591×10^{28} m 1.35576679×10^{28} m 6.77883397×10^{29} m 3.38941698×10^{29} m 
20^{−38} 19^{−38} 18^{−38} 17^{−38} 16^{−39} 15^{−39} 14^{−40} 13^{−40} 12^{−40} 11^{−40} 
5.65329361306 × 10^{−38} seconds 2.82646806528 ×10^{−38} seconds 1.41323403264 ×10^{−38} seconds 7.0661701632 × 10^{−39} seconds 3.530850816 × 10^{−39} seconds 1.7665425408 × 10^{−39} seconds 8.832712704 × 10^{−40} seconds 4.416356352 × 10^{−40} seconds 2.208178176 × 10^{−40} seconds 1.104089088 × 10^{−40} seconds 
1.69470849×10^{29} m 8.47354247×10^{30} m 4.2367712×10^{30} m 2.11838561×10^{30} m 1.05919280×10^{30} m 5.29596404×10^{31} m 2.64798202×10^{31} m 1.32399101×10^{31} m 6.6199550×10^{32} m 3.30997752×10^{32} m 
10^{−40} 9^{−41} 8^{−41} 7^{−41} 6^{−42} 5^{−42} 4^{−42} 3^{−43} 2^{−43} 1^{−43} 
5.52044544 × 10^{−41} seconds 2.76022272 × 10^{−41} seconds 1.38011136 × 10^{−41} seconds 6.9005568 × 10^{−42} seconds 3.4502784 × 10^{−42} seconds 1.7251392 × 10^{−42} seconds 8.625696 × 10^{−43} seconds 4.312848 × 10^{−43} seconds 2.156424 × 10^{−43} s The second doubling 1.078212 × 10^{−43} s The first doubling 
1.65498876×10^{32} m
8.27494384×10^{33} m 4.1374719232×10^{33} m 2.0687359616×10^{33} m 1.03436798×10^{33} m 5.17183990×10^{34} m 2.58591995×10^{34} m 1.29295997×10^{34} m 6.46479988×10^{35} meters 3.23239994×10^{35} m The first doubling, step, or layer. 
5.39106(32)×10^{−44} seconds  1.616199(97)x10^{35} meters 
The Planck Time 
The Planck Length 
Endnotes: 1. We are in the process of refining this chart and will be throughout 2015 and 2016. 2. Our very first calculation with the Planck Length column (December 2011), resulted in 209 doublings! We found several errors. Then , with help of a NASA astrophysicist, Joe Kolecki (now retired), we updated our postings with his calculation of 202.34. Then, a French Observatory astrophysicist, JeanPierre Luminet, calculated 205.1 doublings. We are very open to all ideas and efforts! We are studying the foundations of foundations. One might call it a hypostatic science based on the simplest mathematics, simple geometries and observations about the way the universe coheres. One might say, "The Finite is finite, the Infinite is the Infinite, and the constants and universals describe the boundary conditions and transformations between each. One manifests a panoply of perfections; the other has only momentary instants of perfection." What happens just before the Planck time at 10^{44} seconds? Theorists say that all of the four fundamental forces are presumed to have been unified into one force. All matter, energy, space and time "explode" from the original singularity. 3. Our online "Google" calculator often rounds up the last digit. It is usually beyond the eleventh postion to the right of the decimal point. 4. For more about this place and time, go to Hyperphysics (Georgia State): http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/astro/planck.html 5. A copy of this chart has also been published in the following locations: a. http://walktheplanck.wordpress.com/2014/12/09/base/ b. https://utable.wordpress.com/2014/12/12/planck/ c. http://SmallBusinessSchool.org/page3053.html d. ResearchGate Documents: 3052, 3054, 3056 
If Star Wars VII communicates a real vision of our scientific potential, the intellectual revolution would be unstopable.
The film, Gravity, didn’t even attempt to give us a cosmological view. Our mostvisible space entrepreneurs — Richard Branson, Elon Musk, Paul Allen, and Jeff Bezos — are working hard and investing heavily to open new ways to outer space. NASA and a few professors like Carl Sagan once owned the domain. Certainly it has included some of our best science fiction writers. The blockbuster producers of major motion pictures like Star Wars, Star Trek, 2001, A Space Odyssey, Gravity, ET, Contact, and Close Encounters, teased the imaginations of the public, but did very little to teach. Interstellar was to change the SciFi metaphor. They surely tried. They had the best of the best to help shape their narratives, including Cal Tech’s gravitationalblack hole expert, Kip Thorne (author, The Science of Interstellar). But what can we expect when the working concepts of today’s scientific elite still do not include an integrated Universe View? The Narratives: Next up. Just think what might happen if Star Wars^{VII} incorporated iconic storylines where our four space entrepreneurs (pictured above) had a role. Just think what would happen if the best of future science fiction movies built upon each other’s themes and developed a metareality which clearly beckoned us all into the future. New concepts and ideas can be communicated in the drama of a major theatrical production. These four people could make a huge difference. Educate the public? No, these folks could mesmerize the world. Let us look at four very simple facts that sound more like science fiction, but these alone truly engender the imagination to see things in new ways: 1. 205.1+ base2 exponential notations. That takes us from the smallest possible measurement of a length to the largest; that is from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe. That seems unbelievable, but it is true. Simple math. Add some simple geometries and magic happens. Within our most speculative visions, we ask, “Why not try to apply the work with amplituhedrons (new window) and the Langlands program (new window) as a partial definition for the transformations between notations (layers, domains, doublings, or steps)?” There is a certain magic that happens when you envision the universe in 205+ steps. Perhaps it will only be a metaphor or possibly a new intellectual art form. It may be, as the intellectual elites might say, “Not Even Wrong,” but what fun the rest of us can have learning a little about an ordered universe and about the limitations of thought! 2. There is no concurrence about the first 60 notations. These notations are not acknowledged by the general scientific community, so none per se have been knowingly used experimentally! So, be speculative. Use this domain with its no less than a quintillion vertices to construct primal machines. Be bold. Develop a simple logic to control gravity. Extend it to create enormous reserves of a most basic energy that gives rise to quantum fluctuations. Develop logicalalbeitquiteimaginative constructs that educate and challenge us to understand “Beam me up, Scotty!” Have fun and put down that gun (symbolic or otherwise). 3. Work the ratios between all 205.1+ notations and the natural groupings and sets. That range is naturally divided in half, and then by thirds, fourths, fifths and so on. Consider the halfway point. Within the 101st notation is the human hair, within the 102nd notation is the width of the piece of paper, within the 103rd notation is the egg (and the sperm is at 100). Yes, there is a concrescence for life in this middle of this definition of the universe. From here we go on out to discover the remaining 101 to 103+ exponential notations to the Known or Observable Universe. Now, consider the transition from the human scale to the large scale. It is highly speculative yet entirely within the scope of a vivid imagination to expect that the EinsteinRosen tunnels and bridges, commonly known as wormholes (possibly good for intergalactic travel, just might begin to emerge between notations 136 and 138. That’s in the range of the twothirds transition. And, that would put them in the range of 874 to 3500 miles above the earth. The International Space Station is anywhere from 230 to 286 miles above the earth and geosynchronous satellites are around 35,786 kilometers or 22,236 miles above the earth’s equator. A Dream: Develop a cooperative production studio area that incorporates a space elevator that becomes a major edutainment sector whereby the public can actually begin to participate in the most extraordinary educational scenes of major science fiction productions. Surely, the drama of a meteor shower might be part of it taking scenes directly out of Gravity. Editor’s Notes: Most of the links stay within the domain of the primary URL displayed above. Some links go to a Wikipedia reference and open in a new window or tab. Also, many of these short articles have been duplicated on other sites. The three primary sites are Small Business School, where the very first reflections about the Big Boardlittle universe and its Universe Table were first posted in January 2012. You will also find these postings in several interrelated WordPress pages and within LinkedIn pages. The related Facebook and Blogger pages will be included eventually. 
Endnotes, footnotes and references:

Start at the Planck Length, use base2 exponential notation and the five Platonic Solids, and go to the Observable Universe in less than 206 necessarilyrelated steps
 Introduction. The Big Boardlittle universe was first used in class on December 19, 2011. This Universe Table (a fullsized version is just below) began a year later for those same high school geometry classes. The big board measures 62″x10″ and it is just too big and awkward for desktop work. The table is designed to be printed on 8.5″x11″ paper and displayed on a smartphone. Now, the origin of these two charts can be found by looking inside a tetrahedron and an octahedron. Halfsizes of both objects can perfectly fill each other. The question was asked, “How far can we go inside each by dividing in half over and over again?” The simple answer is, “Not very far.” Within 50 steps we were at the size of a proton. Within another 65 steps we were at the Planck Length. This particular table was created by multiplying the smallest possible length the Planck Length by 2 until we got to the edges of the Observable Universe. Distinguished scientists have helped us. One scientist calculated as few as 202.34 notations (doublings or steps) from the smallest to the largest. Another calculated 205.11.
 We use both figures. Within over 202 notations, here is a simple view of the universe, highlyordered and structurally integrated from the smallest to the largest measurements of a length, all within a geometrically homogeneous group.
 Examples. Initially the examples came mostly from the Paul Falstad’s Scale. Then over the following year other objects of special interest to students were selected. Each should be within the range of the notation defined as no less than 50% smaller or no more than 50% larger than that particular Planck multiple. As we go forward, every entry will have footnotes and links for further explanation and exploration.
 Exhausting. Today’s information glut is so chaotic and overwhelming, it seems that it actually depresses creative thinking. So, our hope in sharing this simple little table is that students will feel empowered to search for new insights to understand this universe more deeply and as we do, to instill some optimism about our common future.
 Notice the first 66 notations. In light of the Planck Length doublings, this is rather new ground. Here, there are very few facts and many, many guesses. And, we believe that there are many more surprises to be found throughout this chart. One might readily conclude that all the surprises are new domains for research and study.
Small Scale Speculations Ideas 
Concepts and Parameters 
Boundaries 
Trans 
Numbers and Number Theory 
Forms Order Relation Dynamics 
Functions Continuity Symmetry Harmony 
Large Scale 

1 Planck Length ( ℓP ) 
Transition: SmalltoHuman Scale 
1. Display area: Every number/word hyperlinked – quick results display here 2. Options: Open full screen, new tab or window to the research of the experts 3. Also: Related videosimages and online collaborations with up to nine visitors 4. Key Links: http://UniverseView.org and http://BigBoardLittleUniverse.org 
Transition: HumantoLarge Scale 
205+ Observable Universe 

2 10 Forms^{1} Vertices:1024 
77 Research ℓP:2.44×10^{12}m 
78 Xray Wavelength 
95 Range: Visible Light 
96 Bacteria Red Light 
113 Handsize^{H} 16.78^{+}cm 
114 Textbook^{T} 12.8^{+}inches 
131 Marathon 27^{+}miles 
132 54+ miles 87.99^{+}km 
204+ Observable Universe 
1120 StructureOusia V: 1^{+}million 
76 Gamma Wavelength 
79 Huang Scale 
94 Nanoparticles 10010000^{+}nm 
97 Blood cell^{R} 2.4^{+}microns(µm) 
112 Fingersize 3.3″(inches) 
115 Things 67.134^{±}cm 
130 Race 21.998^{+}km 
133 Drive 108^{+}miles 
202203+ Observable Universe 
2130 Substances V:1^{+} billion 
75 Falstad Scale 
80 Periodic Table 
93 Gold Leaf^{G} 160.06^{±}nm 
98 Capillary 5.12^{+}microns 
111 Spoonful 4.19^{+}cm 
116 A child 52.86^{±}in 
129 Distances: 6.834^{+}miles 
134 Gravityfree 351.97^{+}km 
198201 Superclusters 6.154^{+}yottometers 
3140 Qualities V:1^{+} trillion 
74 Research 1.52^{+}x10^{13}m 
81 Hydrogen^{H} 31^{±}pm 
92 Nanowires 80.03^{±}nm 
99 Cells 10.24^{±}microns 
110 Makeup^{M} .82^{±}inches 
117 A bed 105.72^{±}inches 
128 Village 3.41^{±}miles 
135 Distance 437.41^{±}miles 
191197 Virgo Supercluster^{3} 
4150 Relations V:1+ quadrillion 
73 Research: Tunneling^{4} 
82 Hydrogen^{H} 78^{+} pm 
91 Little chips^{lc} 40.01^{+}nm 
100 Sperm 20.48^{+}microns 
109 Lipstick^{L} 1.04^{+}centimeters 
118 Bedroom 5.37^{+}meters 
127 Walk 1.7^{+}miles 
136 Fly 874^{+}miles 
181190 Galactic Group^{6} 
5160 Systems The Mind^{M} 
72 Nucleus^{N} 7.63^{+}x10^{14}m 
83 Carbon^{C} 70^{±}pm^{2} 
90 Viruses 20.007^{+}nm 
101 HAIR 40^{+}microns 
108 Diamond^{D} 5.2^{+}mm^{M} 
119 Home 35.24^{+}feet 
126 Downtown 1.37^{+}km 
137 Rivers 2815.81^{+}km 
171180 Milky Way 
6165 Elementary Particles 
71 Gold^{AU Nucleus}^{ } 
84 WATER^{W} 3.12^{+}x10^{10}m 
89 Cell Wall 10^{+}nm 
102 Paper 81.95^{+}microns 
107 Ants 2.62^{+}mm 
120 Property 21.48^{+}m 
125 Superdome 687.45^{+}m 
138 USAtoUK 3500^{+}miles 
161170 Solar^{S} Interstellar 
6567 Neutron ProtonFermion 
70 Aluminum^{Al} 1.90^{+}x10^{14}m 
85 DNA^{D} 6.25^{+}x10^{10}m 
88 Insulin 5.00^{+}x10^{9}m 
103 Egg^{E} .16^{+}millimeters 
106 Sand 1.31^{+}mm 
121 Yacht 142^{+}feet 
124 Skyscraper 343.7^{+}meter^{+} 
139 Earth^{E} 11,263^{+}km 
151160 Solar System^{S} 
68 Helium^{He} 4.77^{+}x10^{15} m 
69 Electron 9.54^{+}x10^{15}m 
86 Buckyballs 1.25^{+}nm 
87 Ribosomes 2.50^{+}nm 
104 >^{.}< Period .32^{+}mm 
105 Bacterium .65^{+}mm 
122 Sequoia 85^{+}meters 
123 Tall Building 171.86^{+}m 
140 GPS Satellite 22526^{+}km 
141150 Earth Systems 
THIS IS A VERY ROUGH DRAFT AND A WORK IN PROGRESS: Links and references to the work of scholars within each notation, 1to205, will be added such that every entry on this chart will be an active link. Ongoing Investigations: Distance between bonded hydrogen atoms, diameter of a carbon atom, and a better definition of the ranges within the small scale and large scale universe, i.e. 191197: 48 zettametersto4.7± yottometers and the Local Galactic Group Tunneling — a wildandcrazy speculation: There may be parallel constructs whereby tunneling is part of the transformation More than things, as in protons and fermions, could the results of cellular automaton be understood as Plato’s forms (perhaps notations 3to20) and Aristotle’s ousia (perhaps doublings 20to30)? Assuming the Planck Length to be a vertex, and assigning the area over to pure geometries, do we have the basis for form, structure, and the architecture for substances? Then, could it be that this architecture gives rise to an architecture for qualities (notations 30to40)? And, as we progress in the evolution of complexity, could it be that in this emergence, there is now an architecture for relations (notations 40to50)? If we assume an architecture for relations, could the next be an architecture for systems (notations 50to60) and this actually becomes the domain of the Mind? It is certainly a different kind of ontology given it all begins with cellular automaton and base2 notation to provide a coherent architecture (with the builtin imperfections of the fivetetrahedral cluster also known as a pentastar). More: https://utable.wordpress.com/2014/01/20/osi/ 