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Large Scale 

1 Planck Length ( ℓP ) 
Transition: SmalltoHuman Scale 
1. Display area: Every number/word hyperlinked – quick results display here 2. Options: Open full screen, new tab or window to the research of the experts 3. Also: Related videosimages and online collaborations with up to nine visitors 4. Key Links: http://bblu.org UniverseView.org BigBoardLittleUniverse.org 
Transition: HumantoLarge Scale 
205+ Observable Universe 

2 10 Forms^{1} Vertices:1024 
77 Research ℓP:2.44×10^{12}m 
78 Xray Wavelength 
95 Range: Visible Light 
96 Bacteria Red Light 
113 Handsize^{H} 16.78^{+}cm 
114 Textbook^{T} 12.8^{+}inches 
131 Marathon 27^{+}miles 
132 54+ miles 87.99^{+}km 
204+ Observable Universe 
1120 StructureOusia V: 1^{+}million 
76 Gamma Wavelength 
79 Huang Scale 
94 Nanoparticles 10010000^{+}nm 
97 Blood cell^{R} 2.4^{+}microns(µm) 
112 Fingersize 3.3″(inches) 
115 Things 67.134^{±}cm 
130 Race 21.998^{+}km 
133 Drive 108^{+}miles 
202203+ Observable Universe 
2130 Substances V:1^{+} billion 
75 Falstad Scale 
80 Periodic Table 
93 Gold Leaf^{G} 160.06^{±}nm 
98 Capillary 5.12^{+}microns 
111 Spoonful 4.19^{+}cm 
116 A child 52.86^{±}in 
129 Distances: 6.834^{+}miles 
134 Gravityfree 351.97^{+}km 
198201 Superclusters 6.154^{+}yottometers 
3140 Qualities V:1^{+} trillion 
74 Research 1.52^{+}x10^{13}m 
81 Hydrogen^{H} 31^{±}pm 
92 Nanowires 80.03^{±}nm 
99 Cells 10.24^{±}microns 
110 Makeup^{M} .82^{±}inches 
117 A bed 105.72^{±}inches 
128 Village 3.41^{±}miles 
135 Distance 437.41^{±}miles 
191197 Virgo Supercluster^{3} 
4150 Relations V:1+ quadrillion 
73 Research: Tunneling^{4} 
82 Hydrogen^{H} 78^{+} pm 
91 Little chips^{lc} 40.01^{+}nm 
100 Sperm 20.48^{+}microns 
109 Lipstick^{L} 1.04^{+}centimeters 
118 Bedroom 5.37^{+}meters 
127 Walk 1.7^{+}miles 
136 Fly 874^{+}miles 
181190 Galactic Group^{6} 
5160 Systems The Mind^{M} 
72 Nucleus^{N} 7.63^{+}x10^{14}m 
83 Carbon^{C} 70^{±}pm^{2} 
90 Viruses 20.007^{+}nm 
101 HAIR 40^{+}microns 
108 Diamond^{D} 5.2^{+}mm^{M} 
119 Home 35.24^{+}feet 
126 Downtown 1.37^{+}km 
137 Rivers 2815.81^{+}km 
171180 Milky Way 
6165 Elementary Particles 
71 Gold^{AU Nucleus}^{ } 
84 WATER^{W} 3.12^{+}x10^{10}m 
89 Cell Wall 10^{+}nm 
102 Paper 81.95^{+}microns 
107 Ants 2.62^{+}mm 
120 Property 21.48^{+}m 
125 Superdome 687.45^{+}m 
138 USAtoUK 3500^{+}miles 
161170 Solar^{S} Interstellar 
6567 Neutron ProtonFermion 
70 Aluminum^{Al} 1.90^{+}x10^{14}m 
85 DNA^{D} 6.25^{+}x10^{10}m 
88 Insulin 5.00^{+}x10^{9}m 
103 Egg^{E} .16^{+}millimeters 
106 Sand 1.31^{+}mm 
121 Yacht 142^{+}feet 
124 Skyscraper 343.7^{+}meter^{+} 
139 Earth^{E} 11,263^{+}km 
151160 Solar System^{S} 
68 Helium^{He} 4.77^{+}x10^{15} m 
69 Electron 9.54^{+}x10^{15}m 
86 Buckyballs 1.25^{+}nm 
87 Ribosomes 2.50^{+}nm 
104 >^{.}< Period .32^{+}mm 
105 Bacterium .65^{+}mm 
122 Sequoia 85^{+}meters 
123 Tall Building 171.86^{+}m 
140 GPS Satellite 22526^{+}km 
141150 Earth Systems 
A WORK IN PROGRESS. © 2014 Bruce Camber 
Category Archives: Universe View
Working Draft: Planck Time, Planck Length & Base2 Exponential Notation
Planck Time to the Age of the Universe 
More articles (workingdrafts): 
PLEASE NOTE: This page was started early in December 2014. There are many simple errors within the chart below, so this page will be subject to frequent updates. Are there any comparison between the progressions from the Planck Time and the Planck Length using base2 exponential notation through the successive doublings out to their given limits, i.e. the Age of the Universe and the Observable Universe respectively? At this point in time, I do not think there are, so we are making our first working draft attempt to do it here. Perhaps it goes without saying… as you read this note, I appeal to you to ask questions and make comments and suggestions. Thank you. –Bruce Camber The Planck Time, like the Planck Length, is an actual value. It can be multiplied by 2. Of course, if one were to multiply it by 2 over and over again, you can assume that you would reach those outer limits. That process looks a bit tedious. After all, the Age of the Universe is somewhere over 13.78 billion years and the Observable Universe is millions of light years from common sense. Yet, rather surprisingly, to complete that effort doesn’t require thousands of doublings. It is done in somewhere between 202 to 206 doublings. That is so surprising, the doublings for both are charted below. These doublings do kindof, sortof end up somewhat in synch. Considering the duration and the length, and the nature of very large measurements, for all intents and purposes, they are synched! Though these charts will be tweaked substantially, the best confirmation is at the notations (or doublings) that define a day in Planck Time units correspond closely to distance light travels in a day in Planck Length units. And, the doublings within the Planck Time column for the definition of a week correspond closely with the distance light travels in a week within the Planck Length column. And, finally, the doublings in the Planck Time column that define a year correspond closely with the distance light travels within a year in the Planck Length column. These are the first baby steps of analysis. How many hundreds of steps are there to go to discern all the faces of its meaning? Who knows? From here, we will continue to look to see what meaning and relation evolves at a Science and our common sense worldview assume the primordial nature of space and time. As a result of our work with the Planck Units, we hold that conclusion up for further inspection. How do things appear as one begins to approach the Planck Length and Planck Time in synch? As we add more Planck Units to this chart, what else might we see? What might we learn? So, we will add mass, electric charge, and temperature to these listings. And then, we’ll add the derived Planck Units (12) and then ask, "Is there anything more we can do to establish a range from the smallest to the largest? What might a comparative analysis at each doubling reveal to us? At this point, we are attempting to learn enough to make a few somewhat intelligent guesses. So, as a result of where we are today, I think it is okay to ask the question, "What would the universe look like if space and time were derivative of ordercontinuity and relationsymmetry, and of ratios where the subjectobject are constantly in tension?" By the way, on May 10, 2010, the very smallest unit of measured time was experimentally demonstrated; the result was 1.2 × 10^{−17} seconds. That is a long way from 10^{−44} seconds! For more background, see: http://phys.org/news192909576.html This stream of consciousness continues at the very bottom of this chart. 
Planck Time Doublings: Primarily in Seconds 
Planck Length Doublings: Primarily in Meters 

204 
The Age of the Universe: 13.78 to 13.8 billion years 
8.310×10^{26} m or Future Universe 
203 
It appears that we are in the earliest part of 202 doubling:10^{19} 
4.155×10^{26} m or Near Future Universe 
202 
6.9309178×10^{18} seconds (21.9777+ billion years)^{18} 
2.077×10^{26} m or in the range of the Observable Universe 
201 
346,545,888,147,200,000 seconds (10.9888+ billion years) 
1.03885326×10^{26} m approaching the Observable Universe 
200 ^{18} 
173,272,944,073,600,000 seconds (5.49444+ billion years) 
5.19426632×10^{25} m 
199 
86,636,472,036,800,000 seconds (2.747+ billion years) 
2.59713316×10^{25} m 
198 
43,318,236,018,400,000 seconds (1.3736+ billion years) 
1.29856658×10^{25} m 
197 
21,659,118,009,200,000 seconds (686.806+ million years) ^{17} 
6.49283305×10^{24} m 
196 
10,829,559,004,600,000 seconds (342.4+ million years) 
3.24641644×10^{24} m 
195 
5,414,779,502,320,000 seconds (171.2+ million years) 
1.62320822×10^{24} m 
194 
2,707,389,751,160,000 seconds (85.6+ million years) 
8.11604112×10^{23} m 
193 
1,353,694,875,580,000 seconds (42.8+ million years) 
4.05802056×10^{23} m 
192 
676,847,437,792,000 seconds (21.4+ million years) 
2.02901033×10^{23} m 
191 
338,423,718,896,000 seconds (10.724+ million years) 
1.01450514×10^{23} m 
190^{15} 189^{14} 188^{14} 187^{14} 186^{14} 185^{13} 184^{13} 183^{13} 182^{12} 181^{12} 
169,211,859,448,000 seconds (5.3+ million years) ^{15} 84,605,929,724,000 seconds (2.6+ million years) ^{14} 42,302,964,862,000 seconds (1.3+ million years) ^{14} 21,151,482,431,000 seconds (640+ thousand years) ^{14} 10,575,741,215,500 seconds (320+ thousand years) ^{14} 5,287,870,607,760 seconds (160+ thousand years) ^{13} 2,643,935,303,880 seconds (83.7+ thousand years) ^{13} 1,321,967,651,940 seconds (41.8+ thousand years) ^{13} 660,983,825,972 seconds (20.9+ thousand years) ^{12} 330,491,912,986 seconds (or about 10,472.9 years) ^{12} 
5.07252568×10^{22} m 2.53626284×10^{22} m 1.26813145 x10^{22} m 6.34065727×10^{21} m 3.17032864×10^{21} m or 3 Zettameters or 310,000 ly 1.58516432×10^{21} m or about 150,000 ly (1.5z) 7.92582136×10^{20} m 3.96291068×10^{20} m 1.981455338×10^{20} m 9.90727664×10^{19} meters 
180^{12} 179^{11} 178^{11} 177^{11} 176^{11} 175^{10} 174^{10} 173^{10} 172^{9} 171. ^{9} 
165,245,956,493 seconds ^{12} 82,622,978,246.4 seconds ^{11} 41,311,489,123.2 seconds ^{11} 20,655,744,561.6 seconds ^{11} 10,327,872,280.8 seconds ^{11} 5,163,936,140.4 seconds ^{10} 2,581,968,070.2 seconds ^{10} 1,290,984,035.1 seconds ^{10} 645,492,017.552 seconds ^{9} 322,746,008.776 seconds ^{9} 
4.95363832×10^{19} m 2.47681916×10^{19} m 1.23840958×10^{19} m 6.19204792×10^{18} m 3.09602396×10^{18} m 1.54801198×10^{18} m 7.74005992×10^{17} m 3.87002996×10^{17} m 1.93501504 x10^{17} m 9.67507488×10^{16} m 
170^{9} 169^{8} 168^{8} 167^{8} 166^{8} 165^{7} 164^{7} 163^{7} 162^{6} 161^{6} 
161,373,004.388 seconds ^{9} 80,686,502.194 seconds ^{8} 40,343,251.097 sec ^{8}(466 days)(Note: 31,536,000 s/year) 20,171,625.5485 seconds (233.468 days)^{8} 10,085,812.7742 seconds (116.73 days)^{8} 5,042,906.38712 seconds (58.36+)10^{7} 2,521,453.19356 s (29.1835 days) 1,260,726.59678 s (14.59+ days) 10^{7} 630,363.29839 s (7.29+ days) 10^{6} 315,181.649195 seconds (3.64794 days) 10^{6} 
4.83753744×10^{16} m 2.41876872×10^{16} m 1.20938436×10^{16} m 6.0469218×10^{15} m [one light year (ly) is 9.4×10^{15} m] 3.0234609×10^{15} m 1.5117305×10^{15} m 7.55865224×10^{14} m 3.77932612×10^{14} m 1.88966306×10^{14} m (about 7day light travel) 9.44831528×10^{13} m 
160^{6} 159^{5} 158^{5} 157^{5} 156^{4} 155^{4} 154^{4} 153^{4} 152^{3} 151^{3} 
157,590.824598 s (1.82 days)10^{6} 78,795.4122988 s (.911984 days) 10^{5} 39,397.7061494 seconds 10^{5} 19,698.8530747 seconds 10^{5} 9849.42653735 seconds 10^{4} 4924.71326867 seconds(3600 s in hour)10^{4} 2462.35663434 seconds 10^{4} 1231.17831717 seconds10^{4} 615.589158584 seconds (10.259+ minutes)10^{3} 307.794579292 seconds 10^{3} 
4.72415764×10^{13} m 2.36207882×10^{13} m (or close to 24hour light travel) 1.18103945×10^{13} m 5.90519726×10^{12} m 2.95259863×10^{12} m 1.47629931×10^{12} m 738,149,657 kilometers 10^{11} 369,074,829 kilometers 10^{11} 184,537,414 kilometers 10^{11} 92,268,707.1 kilometers (range of earthtosun)10^{10}m 
150^{3} 149^{2} 148^{2} 147^{2} 146^{1} 145^{1} 144^{1} 143^{1} 142^{−1} 141^{−1} 
153.897289646 seconds 10^{3} 76.948644823 s (16+ sec over 1 min) 10^{2} 38.4743224115 s (21.53 sec to 1 min) 10^{2} 19.2371612058 seconds 9.61858060288 seconds 4.80929030144 seconds 10^{?} 2.40464515072 seconds 10^{?} 1.20232257536 s (1s ≠ perfect t_{p} multiple) 10^{?} 6.0116128768×10^{−1} seconds 3.0058064384×10^{−1} seconds 
46,134,353.6 kilometers 10^{10} 23,067,176.8 kilometers 10^{10} 11,533,588.4 kilometers 10^{10} 5,766,794.2 kilometers 10^{9} 2,883,397.1 kilometers 10^{9} 1,441,698.55 kilometers 10^{9} m 720,849.264 kilometers 10^{8} 360,424.632 kilometers10^{8} m 180,212.316 kilometers (111,979+ miles)10^{8} m 90,106.158 kilometers 10^{7} m 
140^{−1} 139^{−2} 138^{−2} 137^{−2} 136^{−2} 135^{−3} 134^{−3} 133^{−3} 132^{−4} 131^{−4} 
1.5029032192×10^{−1} seconds 7.514516096×10^{−2} seconds 3.757258048 × 10^{−2} seconds 1.878629024 × 10^{−2} seconds 9.39314512 × 10^{−3} seconds 4.69657256 × 10^{−3} seconds 2.34828628 × 10^{−3} seconds 1.174143145978 × 10^{−3} seconds 5.8707157335 × 10^{−4} seconds 2.93535786675 × 10^{−4} seconds 
45,053.079 kilometers 10^{7} 22,526.5398 kilometers 10^{7} 11,263.2699 kilometers or about 7000 miles 5631.63496 kilometers 10^{6} 2815.81748 kilometers 10^{6} 1407.90874 kilometers (about 874 miles )10^{6}m 703.954368 kilometers 10^{5} 351.977184 kilometers (218.7 miles 10^{5} 175.988592 kilometers (109.35 miles )10^{5} 87.994296 kilometers 10^{4} 
130^{−4} 129^{−5} 128^{−5} 127^{−5} 126^{−5} 125^{−6} 124^{−6} 123^{−6} 122^{−7} 121^{−7} 
1.46767893338 × 10^{−4} s 7.33839466688 × 10^{−5}s 3.66919733344 × 10^{−5} s 1.83459866672× 10^{−5} s 9.1729933336 × 10^{−6} s 4.5864966668 × 10^{−6} s 2.2932483334 × 10^{−6} s 1.1466241667 × 10^{−6} s 5.73312083348 × 10^{−7} s 2.86656041674 × 10^{−7} s 
43.997148 kilometers 10^{4} 21.998574 kilometers10^{4} 10.999287 kilometers or within 6.83464 miles10^{4} 5.49964348 kilometers 10^{3} 2.74982174 kilometers 10^{3} 1.37491087 kilometers 10^{3} 687.455439 meters 10^{2} 343.72772 meters or about 1128 feet 10^{2} 171.86386 meters or about 563 feet 10^{2} 85.9319296 meters 10^{1} 
120^{−7} 119^{−8} 118^{−8} 117^{−8} 116^{−9} 115^{−9} 114^{−9} 113^{−9} 112^{−10} 111^{−10} 
1.43328020837 × 10^{−7} s 7.16640104186 × 10^{−8} s 3.58320052093 × 10^{−8} s 1.79160026046 × 10^{−8} seconds 8.95800130232 × 10^{−9} seconds 4.47900065116 × 10^{−9} seconds 2.23950032558 × 10^{−9} seconds 1.11975016279 × 10^{−9} seconds 5.59875081396 × 10^{−10} seconds 2.79937540698 × 10^{−10} seconds 
42.9659648 meters 10^{1} 21.4829824 meters 10^{1} 10.7414912 meters or 35.24 feet or 1.074×10^{1} m10^{0} 5.3707456 meters 10^{0} 2.6853728 meters or 105.723 inches 10^{0} 1.3426864 meters or 52.86 inches 10^{0} 67.1343176 cm (19.68+ inches or 6.71×10^{1} 33.5671588 centimeters or 3.356×10^{1} m 16.7835794 centimeters or 1.6783×10^{1} 8.39178968 cm (3.3+ inches or 8.39×10^{2} m 
110^{−10} 109^{−11} 108^{−11} 107^{−11} 106^{−12} 105^{−12} 104^{−12} 103^{−12} 102^{−13} 101^{−13} 
1.39968770349 × 10^{−10} seconds 6.99843851744 × 10^{−11} seconds 3.49921925872 × 10^{−11} seconds 1.74960962936 × 10^{−11} seconds 8.7480481468 × 10^{−12} seconds 4.3740240734 × 10^{−12} seconds 2.1870120367 ×10^{−12} seconds 1.09350601835 ×10^{−12} seconds 5.46753009176 ×10^{−13} seconds 2.73376504588 × 10^{−13} seconds 
4.19589484 centimeters 4.19589484×10^{2} m 2.09794742 centimeters or 2.0979×10^{2} m 1.04897 centimeters or 1.04897375×10^{2} m 5.24486856 mm (about 1/4 inch) or 5.24×10^{3} m 2.62243428 millimeters or 2.62243428×10^{3} m 1.31121714 millimeters 1.31121714×10^{3} m .655608568 millimeters or 6.55608568×10^{4} m .327804284 millimeter or 3.27804284 x10^{4} m .163902142 millimeters or 1.63902142×10^{4} m 81.9510712 microns or 81.9510712 x10^{5} m 
100^{−13} 99^{−14} 98^{−14} 97^{−14} 96^{−15} 95^{−15} 94^{−15} 93^{−15} 92^{−16} 91^{−16} 
1.36688252294 × 10^{−13} seconds 6.83441261472 × 10^{−14} seconds 3.41720630736 × 10^{−14} seconds 1.70860315368 × 10^{−14} seconds 8.5430157684 × 10^{−15} seconds 4.2715078842 × 10^{−15} seconds 2.1357539421 × 10^{−15} seconds 1.06787697105 × 10^{−15} seconds 5.33938485524 × 10^{−16} seconds 2.66969242762 × 10^{−16} seconds 
40.9755356 microns or 4.09755356 x10^{5} m 20.4877678 microns or 2.04877678×10^{5} m 10.2438839 microns or 1.02438839×10^{5} m 5.12194196 microns (.0002+ inches or 5.12×10^{6} m 2.56097098 microns or 2.56097098×10^{6} m 1.28048549 microns or 1.2804854×10^{6} m 640.242744 nanometers 6.40242744×10^{7} m 320.121372 nanometers 3.20121372×10^{7} m 160.060686 nanometers or 1.60×10^{7} m 80.0303432 nanometers or 8.00×10^{8} m 
90^{−16} 89^{−17} 88^{−17} 87^{−17} 86^{−18} 85^{−18} 84^{−18} 83^{−18} 82^{−192} 81^{−192} 
1.33484621381 × 10^{−16} seconds 6.67423106904 × 10^{−17} seconds 3.33711553452 × 10^{−17} seconds 1.66855776726 × 10^{−17} seconds (smallest measurement – 2010) 8.34278883632 × 10^{−18} seconds 4.17139441816 × 10^{−18} seconds 2.08569720908 × 10^{−18} seconds 1.04284860454 × 10^{−18} seconds 5.21424302272 × 10^{−19} seconds 2.60712151136 × 10^{−19} seconds 
40.0151716 nanometers or 4.00×10^{8} m 20.0075858 nanometers or 2.00×10^{8} m 1.00037929×10^{8} meters or 10 nanometers 5.00189644×10^{9} meters 2.50094822 nanometers or 2.50094822×10^{9} m 1.25474112 nanometers or 1.25×10^{9} m .625237056 nanometers or 6.25237056×10^{10} m .312618528 nanometers or 3.12×10^{10} m .156309264 nanometers or 1.563×10^{10} m 7.81546348×10^{11} m 
80^{−19} 79^{−20} 78^{−20} 77^{−20} 76^{−21} 75^{−21} 74^{−21} 73^{−21} 72^{−22} 71^{−22} 
1.30356075568 × 10^{−19} seconds 6.5178037784 × 10^{−20} seconds 3.2589018892 × 10^{−20} seconds 1.6294509446 × 10^{−20} seconds 8.147254723 × 10^{−21} seconds 4.0736273615 × 10^{−21} seconds 2.03681368075 × 10^{−21} seconds 1.01840684038 × 10^{−21} seconds 5.09203420188 × 10^{−22} seconds 2.54601710094 × 10^{−22} seconds 
3.90773174×10^{11} m 1.95386587×10^{11} m 9.76932936×10^{12} m 4.88466468×10^{12} m 2.44233234×10^{12} m 1.22116617×10^{12} m 6.10583084×10^{13} m 3.05291542×10^{13} m 1.52645771×10^{13} m 7.63228856×10^{14} m 
70^{−22} 69^{−23} 68^{−23} 67^{−23} 66^{−24} 65^{−24} 64^{−24} 63^{−25} 62^{−25} 61^{−25} 
1.27300855047 × 10^{−22} seconds 6.36504275236 × 10^{−23} seconds 3.18252137618 × 10^{−23} seconds 1.59126068809 × 10^{−23} seconds 7.95630344044 × 10^{−24} seconds 3.97815172022 × 10^{−24} seconds 1.98907586011 × 10^{−24} seconds 9.94537930056 × 10^{−25} seconds 4.97268965028 × 10^{−25} seconds 2.48634482514 × 10^{−25} seconds 
3.81614428×10^{14} m 1.90807214×10^{14} m 9.54036072×10^{15} m 4.77018036×10^{15} m 2.38509018×10^{15} m 1.19254509×10^{15} m 5.96272544×10^{16} m 2.98136272×10^{16} m 1.49068136×10^{16} m 7.45340678×10^{17} m 
60^{−25} 59^{−26} 58^{−26} 57^{−26} 56^{−27} 55^{−27} 54^{−27} 53^{−28} 52^{−28} 51^{−28} 
1.24317241257 × 10^{−25} seconds 6.21586206284 × 10^{−26} seconds 3.10793103142 × 10^{−26} seconds 1.55396551571 × 10^{−26} seconds 7.76982757856 × 10^{−27} seconds 3.88491378928 × 10^{−27} seconds 1.94245689464 × 10^{−27} seconds 9.7122844732 × 10^{−28} seconds 4.8561422366 × 10^{−28} seconds 2.4280711183 × 10^{−28} seconds 
3.72670339×10^{17} m 1.86335169×10^{17} m 9.31675848×10^{18} m 4.65837924×10^{18} m 2.32918962×10^{18} m 1.16459481×10^{18} m 5.82297404×10^{19} m 2.91148702×10^{19} m 1.45574351×10^{19} m 7.27871756×10^{20} m 
50^{−28} 49^{−29} 48^{−29} 47^{−29} 46^{−30} 45^{−30} 44^{−30} 43^{−31} 42^{−31} 41^{−31} 
1.21403555915 × 10^{−28} seconds 6.07017779576 × 10^{−29} seconds 3.03508889788 × 10^{−29} seconds 1.51754444894 × 10^{−29} seconds 7.58772224468 × 10^{−30} seconds 3.79386112234 × 10^{−30} seconds 1.89693056117 × 10^{−30} seconds 9.48465280584 × 10^{−31} seconds 4.74232640292 × 10^{−31} seconds 2.37116320146 × 10^{−31} seconds 
3.63935878×10^{20} m 1.81967939×10^{20} m 9.09839696×10^{21} m 4.54919848×10^{21} m 2.27459924×10^{21} m 1.13729962×10^{21} m 5.68649812×10^{22} m 2.84324906×10^{22} m 1.42162453×10^{22} m 7.10812264×10^{23} m 
40^{−31} 39^{−32} 38^{−32} 37^{−32} 36^{−33} 35^{−33} 34^{−33} 33^{−34} 32^{−34} 31^{−34} 
1.18558160073 × 10^{−31} seconds 5.92790800364 × 10^{−32} seconds 2.96395400182 × 10^{−32} seconds 1.48197700091 × 10^{−32} seconds 7.40988500456 × 10^{−33} seconds 3.70494250228 × 10^{−33} seconds 1.85247125114 × 10^{−33} seconds 9.26235625568 × 10^{−34} seconds 4.63117812784× 10^{−34} seconds 1.15779453196× 10^{−34} seconds 
3.55406132×10^{23} m 1.77703066×10^{23} m 8.88515328×10^{24} m 4.44257664×10^{24} m 2.22128832×10^{24} m 1.11064416×10^{24} m 5.5532208×10^{25} m 2.7766104×10^{25} m 1.3883052×10^{25} m 6.94152599×10^{26} m 3.47076299×10^{26} m 
30^{−35} 29^{−35} 28^{−35} 27^{−36} 26^{−36} 25^{−36} 24^{−37} 23^{−37} 22^{−37} 21^{−37} 
5.78897265978 × 10^{−35} seconds 2.89448632989 × 10^{−35} seconds 1.44724316494 × 10^{−35} seconds 7.23621582472 × 10^{36} seconds 3.61810791236 × 10^{−36} seconds 1.80905395618 × 10^{−36} seconds 9.045269781089 × 10^{−37} seconds 4.522263489044 × 10^{−37} seconds 2.26131744522 × 10^{−37} seconds 1.13065872261 × 10^{−37} seconds 
1.735381494×10^{26} m 8.67690749×10^{27} m 4.3384537×10^{27} m 2.16922687×10^{27} m 1.0846134×10^{27} m 5.42306718×10^{28} m 2.711533591×10^{28} m 1.35576679×10^{28} m 6.77883397×10^{29} m 3.38941698×10^{29} m 
20^{−38} 19^{−38} 18^{−38} 17^{−38} 16^{−39} 15^{−39} 14^{−40} 13^{−40} 12^{−40} 11^{−40} 
5.65329361306 × 10^{−38} seconds 2.82646806528 ×10^{−38} seconds 1.41323403264 ×10^{−38} seconds 7.0661701632 × 10^{−39} seconds 3.530850816 × 10^{−39} seconds 1.7665425408 × 10^{−39} seconds 8.832712704 × 10^{−40} seconds 4.416356352 × 10^{−40} seconds 2.208178176 × 10^{−40} seconds 1.104089088 × 10^{−40} seconds 
1.69470849×10^{29} m 8.47354247×10^{30} m 4.2367712×10^{30} m 2.11838561×10^{30} m 1.05919280×10^{30} m 5.29596404×10^{31} m 2.64798202×10^{31} m 1.32399101×10^{31} m 6.6199550×10^{32} m 3.30997752×10^{32} m 
10^{−40} 9^{−41} 8^{−41} 7^{−41} 6^{−42} 5^{−42} 4^{−42} 3^{−43} 2^{−43} 1^{−43} 
5.52044544 × 10^{−41} seconds 2.76022272 × 10^{−41} seconds 1.38011136 × 10^{−41} seconds 6.9005568 × 10^{−42} seconds 3.4502784 × 10^{−42} seconds 1.7251392 × 10^{−42} seconds 8.625696 × 10^{−43} seconds 4.312848 × 10^{−43} seconds 2.156424 × 10^{−43} s The second doubling 1.078212 × 10^{−43} s The first doubling 
1.65498876×10^{32} m
8.27494384×10^{33} m 4.1374719232×10^{33} m 2.0687359616×10^{33} m 1.03436798×10^{33} m 5.17183990×10^{34} m 2.58591995×10^{34} m 1.29295997×10^{34} m 6.46479988×10^{35} meters 3.23239994×10^{35} m The first doubling, step, or layer. 
5.39106(32)×10^{−44} seconds  1.616199(97)x10^{35} meters 
The Planck Time 
The Planck Length 
Endnotes: 1. We are in the process of refining this chart and will be throughout 2015 and 2016. 2. Our very first calculation with the Planck Length column (December 2011), resulted in 209 doublings! We found several errors. Then , with help of a NASA astrophysicist, Joe Kolecki (now retired), we updated our postings with his calculation of 202.34. Then, a French Observatory astrophysicist, JeanPierre Luminet, calculated 205.1 doublings. We are very open to all ideas and efforts! We are studying the foundations of foundations. One might call it a hypostatic science based on the simplest mathematics, simple geometries and observations about the way the universe coheres. One might say, "The Finite is finite, the Infinite is the Infinite, and the constants and universals describe the boundary conditions and transformations between each. One manifests a panoply of perfections; the other has only momentary instants of perfection." What happens just before the Planck time at 10^{44} seconds? Theorists say that all of the four fundamental forces are presumed to have been unified into one force. All matter, energy, space and time "explode" from the original singularity. 3. Our online "Google" calculator often rounds up the last digit. It is usually beyond the eleventh postion to the right of the decimal point. 4. For more about this place and time, go to Hyperphysics (Georgia State): http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/astro/planck.html 5. A copy of this chart has also been published in the following locations: a. http://walktheplanck.wordpress.com/2014/12/09/base/ b. https://utable.wordpress.com/2014/12/12/planck/ c. http://SmallBusinessSchool.org/page3053.html d. ResearchGate Documents: 3052, 3054, 3056 
If Star Wars VII communicates a real vision of our scientific potential, the intellectual revolution would be unstopable.
The film, Gravity, didn’t even attempt to give us a cosmological view. Our mostvisible space entrepreneurs — Richard Branson, Elon Musk, Paul Allen, and Jeff Bezos — are working hard and investing heavily to open new ways to outer space. NASA and a few professors like Carl Sagan once owned the domain. Certainly it has included some of our best science fiction writers. The blockbuster producers of major motion pictures like Star Wars, Star Trek, 2001, A Space Odyssey, Gravity, ET, Contact, and Close Encounters, teased the imaginations of the public, but did very little to teach. Interstellar was to change the SciFi metaphor. They surely tried. They had the best of the best to help shape their narratives, including Cal Tech’s gravitationalblack hole expert, Kip Thorne (author, The Science of Interstellar). But what can we expect when the working concepts of today’s scientific elite still do not include an integrated Universe View? The Narratives: Next up. Just think what might happen if Star Wars^{VII} incorporated iconic storylines where our four space entrepreneurs (pictured above) had a role. Just think what would happen if the best of future science fiction movies built upon each other’s themes and developed a metareality which clearly beckoned us all into the future. New concepts and ideas can be communicated in the drama of a major theatrical production. These four people could make a huge difference. Educate the public? No, these folks could mesmerize the world. Let us look at four very simple facts that sound more like science fiction, but these alone truly engender the imagination to see things in new ways: 1. 205.1+ base2 exponential notations. That takes us from the smallest possible measurement of a length to the largest; that is from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe. That seems unbelievable, but it is true. Simple math. Add some simple geometries and magic happens. Within our most speculative visions, we ask, “Why not try to apply the work with amplituhedrons (new window) and the Langlands program (new window) as a partial definition for the transformations between notations (layers, domains, doublings, or steps)?” There is a certain magic that happens when you envision the universe in 205+ steps. Perhaps it will only be a metaphor or possibly a new intellectual art form. It may be, as the intellectual elites might say, “Not Even Wrong,” but what fun the rest of us can have learning a little about an ordered universe and about the limitations of thought! 2. There is no concurrence about the first 60 notations. These notations are not acknowledged by the general scientific community, so none per se have been knowingly used experimentally! So, be speculative. Use this domain with its no less than a quintillion vertices to construct primal machines. Be bold. Develop a simple logic to control gravity. Extend it to create enormous reserves of a most basic energy that gives rise to quantum fluctuations. Develop logicalalbeitquiteimaginative constructs that educate and challenge us to understand “Beam me up, Scotty!” Have fun and put down that gun (symbolic or otherwise). 3. Work the ratios between all 205.1+ notations and the natural groupings and sets. That range is naturally divided in half, and then by thirds, fourths, fifths and so on. Consider the halfway point. Within the 101st notation is the human hair, within the 102nd notation is the width of the piece of paper, within the 103rd notation is the egg (and the sperm is at 100). Yes, there is a concrescence for life in this middle of this definition of the universe. From here we go on out to discover the remaining 101 to 103+ exponential notations to the Known or Observable Universe. Now, consider the transition from the human scale to the large scale. It is highly speculative yet entirely within the scope of a vivid imagination to expect that the EinsteinRosen tunnels and bridges, commonly known as wormholes (possibly good for intergalactic travel, just might begin to emerge between notations 136 and 138. That’s in the range of the twothirds transition. And, that would put them in the range of 874 to 3500 miles above the earth. The International Space Station is anywhere from 230 to 286 miles above the earth and geosynchronous satellites are around 35,786 kilometers or 22,236 miles above the earth’s equator. A Dream: Develop a cooperative production studio area that incorporates a space elevator that becomes a major edutainment sector whereby the public can actually begin to participate in the most extraordinary educational scenes of major science fiction productions. Surely, the drama of a meteor shower might be part of it taking scenes directly out of Gravity. Editor’s Notes: Most of the links stay within the domain of the primary URL displayed above. Some links go to a Wikipedia reference and open in a new window or tab. Also, many of these short articles have been duplicated on other sites. The three primary sites are Small Business School, where the very first reflections about the Big Boardlittle universe and its Universe Table were first posted in January 2012. You will also find these postings in several interrelated WordPress pages and within LinkedIn pages. The related Facebook and Blogger pages will be included eventually. 
Endnotes, footnotes and references:

Could This Be The SmallestBiggestSimplest Domain For Scientific Experimentation?
This article is really by a rather large group of high school students with some help from Bruce Camber who helps our in their geometry classes on occasion. We were studying symmetries and Plato’s solids when we rather circuitously developed a model of the universe from the smallesttothelargest possible measurements of a length. We had divided each edge of a tetrahedron in half and connected the new vertices. We kept on dividing by 2 until we were at the Planck length. Then we multiplied by 2 until we were at the Observable Universe. We wondered why we had not seen this particular scale of the universe anywhere on the web (of course, Kees Boeke’s 1957 work on base10 is wellknown, but we had not learned about it yet). So, we wondered, “Could this be an outline to begin doing the smallestandthebiggest, yet possiblythemostsimple, scientific experiments?” We cautiously thought, “Maybe it is.” Yes, this journey began by looking inside our clear plastic models of the tetrahedron and octahedron. We wanted to see what was perfectly inside. That was easy. We then asked, “How many steps within would it take to get to the Planck Length?” The Planck Length was a topic in our physics classes. When we found just 50 steps to the diameter of the proton and another 68 steps to the vicinity of the Planck Length, we were surprised. We were expecting many, many more steps. Within a couple of days, we began multiplying each edge by 2. Our goal was to get out into the range of the Observable Universe. It appeared that we were getting into the general vicinity in just 91 steps. What? …so few steps? We were dumbfounded but undeterred. To make our emerging chart of the universe consistent, we decided to start at the Planck Length and just multiply by 2 and assume those simple geometries as a given. But, we weren’t sure we could multiply the Planck Length by 2, so we turned to experts on the Planck Length. One of them said our work was idiosyncratic and would go no further. Another cautioned us to work within group theory but encouraged our work. Frank Wilczek, one of the world’s experts on the Planck Length and an MIT Nobel Laureate, also encouraged our explorations and use of the Planck Length. Further checking the web to see if we were making stupid logic errors, we quickly found the base10 work of Kees Boeke, a high school teacher from Holland. Back in 1957 he published a little picture book, Cosmic Vision, that became quite popular within academic circles. Many people have subsequently refined his work. In the ’60s Charles & Ray Eames made a movie about it and Phil & Phyllis Morrison of MIT did an expanded picture book. And, then in 1997 the Smithsonian’s IMAX Theater did an expanded version of the movie with Morgan Freeman. More recently Cary Huang did a lovely online, Flashbased, version dubbed, The Scale of the Universe. All very good, but for us it just doesn’t go far enough in either direction. Certainly it is not granular enough, and it has no inherent geometries. It amounts to what one might call, “exponential notation light”. As Phil Morrison once said, “Just add zeros!” “It’s exponential notation for dummies.” To which our students add, “It’s exponential notation for Dummies.” The Planck Length was first defined in 1899 by Max Planck. Though little used, it is generally accepted to be the smallest meaningful measurement of a length; and because it is based on three constants including the speed of light in a vacuum and the gravitational constant, most scholars believe Planck was right. Though the Observable Universe is a difficult figure to discern, there have been many published guesses over the years. But to give us some confidence that we were on the right track, we turned to a NASA scientist and a French astrophysicist. In this early search, we could not find anybody using base2 exponential notation to extrapolate a view of the universe. Although our intention was not to create a socalled perfect sequence or scale of lengths from smallest to the largest, we backed into using base2 exponential notation because it was simple and we were studying embeddedandnested geometries. So, we could readily number and spatialize each sequence of the scale. It seemed like a logical way to create ordered sets, groups and real relations between everything. Yet, we were quickly approaching our limits of knowledge. Questions abound. What happens in the first 66 notations? Could this be an area for pure math and geometries? Might the first 20 or 30 notations be a domain for cellular automaton? Could the Mind be located somewhere just before the proton? What happens between each doubling? What are the boundary conditions? What is the relation between number and space? Currently we do not know any answers to those questions. Although somebody else might know, we have begun trying to discern a path to discover answers. We began to apply what we knew about the scientific method. How will we identify the types and functions of the constants and variables all along the scale? How will we define the independent and dependent variables? Are there control and moderating variables? What would we use for a control group? Can we begin to make a few hypotheses to test? We are still crawling, trying to find our walking legs. We often find ourselves in a fog of unknowns, but we did come up with a few ideas to create an experiment. Could this be a simple experiment? First, our math gave us somewhere between 202.34^{1} and 205.11 notations,^{2} or doublings, layers, or steps between the smallest and largest measurements of a length. Our first hypothesis is that there will be significant transitions points along the scale. A most simple projection would be to look for significance within the midpoint (dividing in the entire scale by 2, 1:2). We also hypothesize that there will be something significant at the thirds (dividing the entire scale by 3, 1:3), as well as by fourths, fifths, sixth, sevenths, eights, ninths and tenths. We are currently on that path of discovery. It was easy and straightforward to find a range that we could call the midpoint. It was also easy to discover that these notations are where life begins. Yes, the sperm and egg are within that range. Life appears to be the concrescence of the two extremes. That was a very simple experiment and our hypothesis seems to be validated. It is a significant transition. Next, by dividing by 3, we have begun looking at notations 67 to 69 and 134 to 137. Being relatively inexperienced at understanding such small measurements, we made many initial mistakes. Today, we believe at notation 65 we are close to the size of a proton, (r_{p} = 0.84184(67) fm).^{3} Here is the basic building block of the visible universe between notation 65 at 5.96272544×10^{16} meters and notation 66 at 1.19254509×10^{15} meters. Though this scale amounts to a view of the known universe, on a serious note, we will call it a Universe View. On a whimsical note, we call it the Big Boardlittle universe. It feels unique. We have not seen it within our studies. It gives us perspective. It puts everything in a nice grid. It appears to open new areas to study. Another simple hypothesis emerged. We thought, “People with a universe view would be more optimistic, more insightful, and more productive than people who rely on their own views or even a worldview.” It became a project for the National Science Fair.^{4} We developed a tenstep tour of this Universe View, then asked people if they felt more optimistic, insightful, and productive as a result. Our results were not conclusive, however, we have not given up on developing a cleaner methodology and a better control group. We are at the beginning of this study and we have a lifetime of work ahead of us!^{5} —————————————————————— 1. It is a helpful ordering tool. It puts everything in a necessary sequence and a place on a somewhat granular scale. 2. It has inherent geometries. Seen or unseen, we believe these geometries are inherent throughout the known universe and we believe there should be testable hypotheses that we can discern. Perhaps, we are talking about Alfred North Whitehead’s pointfree geometries. Our life is filled with things we do not see, but assume there is a structure for it. It could be a memory of times gone by, a creative insight of a possible solution to a problem, or a recurring dream of things to come. 3. Geometry tiles the known universe, first with the four hexagonal plates within the octahedron and then with tetrahedraloctahedral chains and clusters. This remains to be studied, but it certainly suggests that from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe in just under 206 notations, steps, layers, doublings, or sections, everything is necessarily related to everything. The geometer John Conway (Princeton emeritus) with Yang Jiao and Salvatore Torquato recently expounded on this basic configuration.^{6} 4. The known universe has deepseated symmetries that create a diversity of relations. BUT, we know because of Max Planck’s work to define quantum mechanics, there are also asymmetries, indeterminacy and chaos. We readily find the geometric imperfection and logical opening, first from within the work of FrankKaspers and now within the work of many others (just below).^{7} 5. A speculative summary. Historically space and time have been the container within which everything takes place. As much as Einstein tried to dislodge Sir Isaac’s commonsense worldview, nothing has really taken its place. We started with simple geometries and mapped the known universe including a very, very small universe that is ignored by most. In our work, number and geometry pervade everything. We can see the Frank Wilczek’s Grid emerging from the Planck Length; there is order and continuity within a deep substructure. As we move up through the notations, we can see and feel relations and symmetries building. Yet, we can also feel and see asymmetries and discontinuities taking shape. I believe ultimately we will see how space becomes derivative of geometry and time derivative of number. We just might be able to move on from Newton’s commonsense and develop a simplebutcompelling universe view, whereby order, relations, and dynamics are known through continuities and discontinuities, symmetries and asymmetries, and harmony and discordance. ^{1} NASA physisicist, Joe Kolecki was the first to help us with the calculation of 202.34 notations ^{3} Davide Castelvecchi, “What Do You Mean, The Universe Is Flat?, Part 1,” Scientific American, July 25, 2011 ^{4}National Science Fair project by Bryce Estes ^{5}More background by Bruce Camber ^{6} “New family of tilings of threedimensional Euclidean space by tetrahedra and octahedra” by John H. Conway, Yang Jiao, and Salvatore Torquato, PNAS, 2011 To download a PDF of the entire paper) 
An index for the tenstep tour of the Universe Table and Big Boardlittle universe
• A tenstep tour of the Big Boardlittle universe and the Universe Table
Touch down on ten different parts of the two charts and get a little overview of both (is back under construction).
Introduction / Tour Overview:
– The Planck Length
– Step 202to206: Observable Universe
– Step 101 to 103: In the middle of the universe
– Step 116: A child within
– Step 97: Our caveat and a little blood
– Step 84: A water molecule
– Step 66: ProtonFermion
– Steps 165: Almost too small for words
– Steps 136: Transition to the Large Scale
– Steps 158180: From Solar System to Galaxy to Superclusters
– Please read these Guidelines: Consent & Disclaimer before taking the first survey after the first tour.
• The next tour and survey. More in preparation – access all right here.
– The Universe is Very Small
– The Universe is Very Simple
– The Universe Uses Very Big and Extremely Small Numbers (Make friends with numbers and geometries).
– Please click here to go to Survey #2.
• A research paper and introduction by Bruce Estes
• Reflections on “Walk the Planck” by Bruce Camber, an adviser to Bryce Estes
• Title board: 22″ wide 35″ high (total display, 44″ wide and 70″ high)
• Open Letters – Mostly Emails
– To Alan Dershowitz on a path to Natural Law – February 2014
– To Stephen Hawking regarding Carl Sagan, Sir Arthur Clarke and Space Elevators – February 2014
– To Brian Josephson regarding tunneling and bridges – February 2014
– To Stephen Wolfram on Cellular Automaton – January 2014
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Notes about LookFeel and Navigation: If the line just above extends out of the white background, please open your window larger (perhaps full screen). Also, within the tour, if you click on the last sentence in each description, you should go to the next page.
More related pages:
• Universe Table, An Ongoing Work
There are over 202.34 and as many as 205.11 notations. This table focuses on the Human Scale and notations 67 to 134138. The Small Scale (1 to 6769) and Large Scale (134138 to 205) will follow after updates, verifications, and the footnotes have been completed for this first table.
• Big Board – little universe, An Ongoing Work
This chart is 60″ x 12″ and it was the original depiction of the 202.34to205.11 notations.
• Propaedeutics
An analyze and opinions about the Universe Table and the Big Board – little universe
• Concepts & Parameters
The simplest parameters of science and mathematics opened the way for this entire inquiry.
• Introduction & Overview
The question was asked on December 19, 2011, “Why isn’t this stuff on the web someplace?” It seemed like somewhere in our midst was a fundamental logic flaw. Very cautiously, this page was put up on the web over on the Small Business School website so family and friends could be asked to read this introduction and caution us or encourage us along the way.
• Proposed Wikipedia Article, April 2012.
To invite critical review and collaboration, this article was submitted and then publicly posted within Wikipedia back in April 2012 yet it was deleted in the first week of May. That original iteration was again published within Small Business School.
• 202.34: the calculations by Joe Kolecki, retired, NASA scientist
Joe Kolecki was the first person outside our little group of students to help. He provided us with this calculation in May 2012. Soon thereafter, the Argonne National Laboratory and Nikon Small World helped a little, too.
• Just the numbers
This page provides all the numerations from the first Planck Length through all 202.34 doublings.
• A little story
The background story about how this perception emerged and when it was introduced in high school geometry classes on that last day before the Christmas holidays, Monday, December 19, 2011.
• What are we to believe?
Universals and constants can be applied to every belief system. If the belief system is unable to accommodate both, then it is incomplete.
• First Principles
The conceptual foundations for this work start with the thrust or energy to make things better or more perfect.
May we turn to you for insight? That big chart on the left measures 62″ x 14″ so it can be a bit awkward to use at your desk. We wanted to present the data in a more simple format (to be printed on 8.5×11 inch paper or displayed on a smartphone) so we created the chart on the right. We are calling it, the Universe Table. This is a longterm project, so we would like to ask a few questions to help us prioritize and focus on important things to do.
The largescale universe seems so much more approachable. On the BigBoardlittle universe chart every notation is listed. Within the Universe Table all the notations within the Human Scale are listed, but those within the smallscale are in groups of ten notations and within the largescale they are also in groups of ten, each corresponding to one of the images from Andrew Colvin.
Your Views, Worldviews, Universe View. All views are important. Yet, some views are more optimistic, some are more creative, and some more productive. Our hypothesis is that those who balance their views with a strong worldview and a truly integrated universe view will be the most optimistic, creative and productive.
It is going to take us a long time to figure that out, so we need to get started. We are asking our guests — “Would you please take a very quick, very simple survey, then go on the tour. On the right, you will see a green arrow. Just click on it to begin.
Both charts represent the same thing — the visible universe. The very smallest measurement is the Planck Length. The largest is the Observable Universe. From the smallest to the largest, there are less than 206 notations or steps. Click on each image to see the fullsized rendering.
AS ABOVE, SO BELOW
Key Question: What happens within steps 1 to 65 within Big Board – little universe (BIBolu) and The Universe Table (UT)?
Background: This little document was prepared by Bruce Camber, a founder of Small Business School. This show aired weekly on PBSTV stations around the USA and Canada for 14 years, and weekdays on the Voice of AmericaTV around the world. The focus was to capture the best of humanity, the power of human creativity and those with a vision to see beyond the horizon. Camber’s lifelong focus has been to answer the question, “What empowers our creativity?” As early as 1971 he researched within the common foundations between theology and physics by focusing on perfected states in spacetime. Fastforward, in December 2011 he opened a door on a very simple model of the universe dubbed the Big Board – little universe (BiBolu) using base2 exponential notation and the platonic geometries. In 2012 a more simple version of that chart was introduced and it was dubbed The Universe Table. He is now shepherding National Science Fair activities based on this model and the two charts.
To participate, first complete this survey. Begin a tour of the charts (as well as take the survey) here.
The focus: Cellular Automaton and OSI Layers within computing systems. These two may be provide a good analogue for various degrees of perfection and the many faces of truth.
The power of metaphor and analogy: There are similar constructs and patterns that reoccur throughout the universe. Metaphors provide interior access to the geometries and numbers that are our universe. Intellectually, that construction is mimicked within computer programs. Perhaps the most analogously close place to begin is with Cellular Automaton and the OSI Layers (Open Systems Interconnection).
Cellular Automaton: Though various mechanical automaton were developed in ancient times, cellular automaton originate with the work of Stanislaw Ulam and John von Neumann. Here are the footings for machine that selfreplicate. In 1970 John Conway extended that work by simplifying their rule set, then created the Game of Life which opened the study beyond those with computational mathematics. With the work of Stephen Wolfram, the study of cellular automaton has become a rich, promising discipline unto itself. Here the commonsense understand of a rule takes on much deeper, albeit simple, mathematical definition. Part of our analysis will be to attempt to understand these formulations of key rules, i.e. Rule 30 for aperiodic or chaotic behavior, Rule 90, Rule 110 for the balancing between chaos and stabilitiy, and Rule 184.
OSI, a reference model developed, published and promoted by International Organization for Standardizations (ISO), provides a framework for programming the backbone of the World Wide Web (WWW) utilizing what is known in the computer industry as open systems protocols whereby order, relations, and dynamics are defined within inherentlyrelated systems, set theory and group theory. All complex systems are derivative of simple systems, rules and axioms.
There are seven official layers. Informally, there are three additional layers. We will focus on the first seven, then include the others.
In the process of entering an analogy or metaphor, it becomes obvious one must “force fit” the words and expressions. Essentially one suspends judgment to allow the new information that does not seem to cohere a real chance to breath. Using the OSI layers as a metaphor or direct analogy for each notation will require the same methodology. The official seven layers, and the other emergent layers, are initially forced to be analogous to the layers of truth and its Janusface, degrees of perfection. The result is that now we have layers and degrees of truth and perfection. Perfect is not just perfect but can always be better. It’s corollary works as well: Truth is not just truth but can always be even more true.
The OSI Layers are as follows:
• Layer 1: OSI Physical Layer for basic order that creates a continuity condition
• Layer 2: OSI Data link Layer for basic relations that creates a basic symmetry
• Layer 3: OSI Network Layer for basic dynamics that creates an initial harmony
That is one complete circle within the notation, then it makes a more integrative circle within a set.
• Layer 4: OSI Transport Layer for secondary order/continuity
• Layer 5: OSI Session Layer for secondary relations/symmetries
• Layer 6: OSI Presentation Layer for secondary dynamics and harmony
That is the next revolution of integrative activity, then it makes it third circle for more sets and for groups.
• Layer 7: OSI Application Layer for tertiary order/continuity
The following layers are informal, and not part of the OSIISO schema, but have evolved from within the user groups and on the web:
• Layer 8: OSI Individuation Layer, also referred to as the economic or the finance layer, for tertiary relations/symmetries
• Layer 9: OSI Organization Layer, also referred to as the political layer for tertiary dynamics/harmonies.
Of course, many will observe that there is very little truth or perfection in economics, finance, or politics and at most levels, they would be correct. Yet, observe reallyreal agreements within each, there is a moment of truth. There is a sense of real perfection even if it is momentary and fleeting.
• Layer 10: OSI Government and Legal compliance Layer, also referred to as the political layer for the next layer of order/continuity.
Again, most would readily observe that the complex nature of governmental and legal systems, there can be no truth or perfection, yet instances throughout history could readily be cited.
Layers 11 and beyond also need to be defined in light of the arts, including the religious and healing arts. That will be done as soon as it can be deemed.
Reference model: The OSI layers include lists of functions and services that make each layer cohere. There are also axioms, corollaries, and rules (See: Cellular Automaton and theory) for the interrelation of each layer with the layers directly above and below it. And, as a result, the OSI model continues to make contributions to the development of other products, protocols, and services for many other types of networks.