Email: Prof. Dr. Stephen Hawking, February 2014

DATE:   Friday, Feb 7, 2014
TO:     Prof. Dr. Stephen Hawking, Cambridge University, England
FM:      Bruce Camber

My dear Prof. Dr. Hawking,

I would like to talk with you about base-2 exponential notation from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe.  First, however, you may be pleased to learn that we are exploring the possibilities of creating a Space Elevator to be located at the 30N/90W in East New Orleans.

We will also be recreating Thomas Edison’s first-in-the-world (1895) commercial movie theater on Canal Street about where it was located downtown. The 30/90 is about five miles away.  The theater will be a non-stop, 24/7, film extravaganza where science fiction meets science fact, and from where people will depart to go to the Base Station to board the Space Elevator to go up to one of many the International Research Space Stations (IRCC).  Once on the lift (Space Elevator) they will have had quite a ride, even experienced weightlessness for a short time.  There will be several layers of participation… even overnight guests!  Once on the IRCC they will be able to endlessly watch as they orbit the earth and use telescopes to search for inhabitable planets and plan for their space walks and more.

Of course, we are reviewing all things related to space-and-time, Sir Arthur’s quest for an elevator, and Sagan’s insights regarding the ETs of the universe.  So, your work with Sir Arthur and Carl Sagan, now many years ago, is priceless.

UTThis ride into space will be profoundly educational. These very special simulated environments will have non-stop educational moments. NASA and the National Science Foundation will be guiding much of its development.

However, I am pushing to introduce base-2 exponential notation from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe where the entire universe is seen within the 202.34 notations (layers, doubling, or steps – NASA’s calculation for us) to about 205.11 (JP Luminet’s calculations for us).  Those calculations provides an ordered set within a very granular environment, but so much more.  The first 65 notations are being filled using cellular automaton.  We are attempting to engage Stephen Wolfram (inventor of Mathematica)  to help guide us given Benoit Mandelbrot is no longer available. At notation 65 the fermions and protons begin to emerge.

Why has the academic community ignored the simple expansion of the Planck Length using base-2?

I was a personal friend of Phil and Phylis Morrison when Powers of Ten came out.  That took a high school teacher (Kees Boeke) to lead the way.  It seems to me that even Max Planck could have stopped long enough to make some modest speculations about a base-2 progression back in 1901.  We need to pull in Alfred North Whitehead’s point-free geometries and I think we may have the basis to create a new scientific platform whereby space increasingly becomes derivative of geometry and time derivative of number.  Perhaps someday we can go into the Einstein-Rosen tunnel and begin to calculate when-where-and-how to exit!  Well, maybe.  That’s where we need your advice down the road.

So, after all this verbosity, my question is simple, “Why not use base-2 notation from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe as a simple ordering tool?”  Thanks.

Warmly,

Bruce

Email: Stephen Wolfram, creator of Mathematica

 

Big Board - little universe

Big Board – little universe

Date:   Sat, 4 Jan 2014
To:       Stephen Wolfram
From:   Bruce Camber

Subject:   Cellular automaton

References:
1. UCSD Institute of Neural Computation, 2003 H. Paul Rockwood Memorial lecture
Recorded: 4/30/2003     Duration: 42 minutes 42 seconds
2. http://wolframscience.com
3. http://natureofcode.com/book/chapter-7-cellular-automata/

Key questions:
1. How does structure take shape in the universe?
2. What are the fundamental problems in taking the approach of cellular automata?
3. What does it mean to be a universal system?
4. What gives Rule 30 and 110 their special status?
5. What is computational equivalence?

Dear Stephen:

Thank you for your 2003 H. Paul Rockwood Memorial lecture on cellular automata. I just finished watching the YouTube version of it and I have learned substantially and I have been challenged. It was all quite brilliant.

In light of your work, I need to examine further several simple facts:

1. The universe is mathematically very small. Using base-2 exponential notation from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe, there are just 202.34 (NASA, Kolecki) to 205.11 (Paris, Luminet) notations, steps or doublings. This work (the mathematics) actually began in a high school geometry class when we started with a tetrahedron and divided the edges by 2 finding the octahedron in the middle and four tetrahedrons in each corner. Then dividing the octahedron we found the eight tetrahedrons in each face and the six octahedron in each corner. We kept going within until we found the Planck Length. It was easy to decide to multiply by 2 out to the Observable Universe. Then it was easy to standardize the measurements we just multiplied the Planck Length by 2 until we were in the range of the Observable Universe.

2. The small scale universe is an amazingly complex place. We had to assume the Planck Length is a singularity of one vertex and then we followed the expansion of vertices along each notation. By the 60th notation, of course, there are over a quintillion vertices and at 61st notation another 3 quintillion vertices are added. Yet, it all must start most simply and here the principles of computational equivalence has its a great possible impact. We are right now researching to see how and if AN Whitehead’s point-free geometries could also have applicability.

3. This little universe is readily tiled by the simplest structures.
The universe can be simply and readily tiled with the four hexagonal plates within the octahedron and by the tetrahedral-octahedral-tetrahedral chains.

4. Yet, the universe is delightfully imperfect. In 1959, Frank/Kaspers discerned the 7.38 degree gap with a simple construction of five tetrahedrons looking a lot like the Chrysler logo. The icosahedron can be constructed with two facing pentastars and a band of ten tetrahedrons between them. When made up of 20 tetrahedrons, the icosahedron is more than irregular, it is quite squishy. We call it quantum geometry in our high school. It is the opening to, or the beginning of, randomness.

5. The Planck Length as the next big thing. The behavior may not be so complicated on the surface, but far more complicated just below it. Computers generate rules and these simple rules might be what nature is using below the thresholds of measuring devices.

I could go on, but let’s see if these statements are at all helpful. Our work is just two years old yet relies on several assumptions that have been rattling around for 40 years. I’ll insert from references below.

Many thanks again for your cellular automaton lecture.

Warmly,

Bruce Camber

First principles:
http://bigboardlittleuniverse.wordpress.com/2013/03/29/first-principles/
Earlier edition: http://smallbusinessschool.org/page869.html
One of our student’s is doing a science fair project related to it all:
http://walktheplanck.wordpress.com/2013/12/03/p1/

Tour #2 Step 3: Extremely-Small and Extremely-Large Numbers

Big Board - little universe

Big Board – little universe

Let us start with the two key numbers:
1. The Planck Length: 1.61619926×10-35 meters which is 0.0000000000000000000000000000000000161619926 meters

2. The Observable Universe: 8.79829142×1026meters or 879,829,142,000,000,000,000,000,000 meters

There are many numbers in between the two. Each “0” represents a major base-10 transformation; and within each base-10, there are three or four base-2 notations. Though some say that the Planck Length is a special type of singularity, it has a specific length. Yet, that length is so small, for about 100 years, it was virtually ignored by the entire scientific community. Perhaps a better way of looking at the Planck Length is through the lenses of geometry. If we make it one of Alfred North Whitehead’s point-free vertices of a specific length, each time we multiply by two we grow the size as well as the number of vertices.

The Numbers of Vertices at Key Notations Between 1 and 65. When you assume that the Planck Length is a vertex, unusual concepts flow. First, consider the generation of vertices just by multiplying by 2, then each result by two, over and over again. By the tenth doubling there are 1024 vertices. By the 20th doubling, over a million more are added. On the 30th, another billion+ are added. Then, comes another trillion+ at the 40th, a quadrillion+ at the 50th notation and a quintillion+ at the 60th. At the 61st there are another 2+ quintillion vertices added. These vast arrays and systems of vertices cannot be observed.

This is the domain of postulations and hypostatizations. Consider this concept: going within from about the 65th notation, the domains begin to be shared. More and more is shared by everything as the Planck Length approaches. Each notation organizes uniquely, yet within groups. And these natural groupings reflect all the diversity within all the notations 65 and higher. It seems that the mathematics of cellular automaton may figure into the first 20 or 30 notations. We start with the most basic Forms, then Structures, which become the pre-structure for Substances, archetypes for Qualities, then Relations, then the Mind. We turn to systems theory, group theory, and set theory to discern the order of things.

Perhaps there are five hot spots for immediate research:
* Notations 1-20 and the foundations of cellular automaton and fractal geometries by using the functions created by more than one million vertices
* Notations 50-60 and the foundations of the Mind, logic, psychology, memory, thought, epistemology and learning with over 500 trillion vertices at the 59th notation and then another quintillion+ vertices within the 60th notation.
* Notations 60-80, the emergence of the particles and atoms and the most basic structures of all physical matter
* Notations 100-103, the emergence of the human life and most all life as we know it
* Notations 135-138, the transition to the Large-Scale Universe with the possibilities of uncovering pathways to the Einstein-Rosen bridges and tunnels also known as wormholes.
Key references for more: The numbers

Facts & Guesses. The Facts are what is measurable and what fits within each domain. The Guesses are about what goes on with those domains (aka steps, notations, layers or doublings) especially those that remain blank. Is there a pattern, especially a cyclic pattern that manifests in another notation? We followed Max Planck where he took the constants of nature, starting with the speed of light to calculate the smallest number. We took the age of the universe, with some help from scientists, to learn the largest calculation of a length, the Observable Universe. Making sense of these numbers is another story. So, over the forthcoming weeks, months and years, we will be looking even deeper. Would you help us now and take the little survey? Green Arrow

Pink Arrow

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Notes about Look-and-feel and Navigation: If a little thumbnail of any picture is displayed, simply refresh your browser and the full-size version hopefully will paste in. Also, if any of the letters from right column, particularly the Archives and Meta listings, are bleeding through the image of the Universe Table, please open your window larger (possibly to full screen). Usually if you click on the last sentence in each description you will go to the next page.

More notes about the how these charts came to be:
1Three downloads authored by Prof. Dr. Frank Wilczek: Scaling Mt. Planck (from Columbia University), C. Alden Mead’s letter and Wilczek’s response in Physics Today, and Wilczek’s August 2013 Lecture notes on units and magnitude (If you like this paper, also read this one).

The simple conceptual starting points
An article (unpublished) to attempt to analyze this simple model. There are pictures of a tetrahedron and octahedron.
A background story: It started in a high school geometry class on December 19, 2011.
The sequel: Almost two years later, a student stimulates the creation of this little tour.

Wikipedia on the Planck length
Wikipedia on the Observable Universe

Take it as a given that it is also a vertex. By the second doubling, there are four vertices, just enough for a tetrahedron. By the tenth doubling there are 1024 vertices. The number doubles each notation. By the 20th doubling, over a million more are added. On the 30th, another billion+ are added. Then, comes a trillion+ at the 40th, a quadrillion+ at the 50th notation and a quintillion+ at the 60th. At the 61st there are another 2+ quintillion vertices. What does it mean?

The simplest geometries yield a deep-seated order and symmetries throughout the universe. Those same simple geometries also appear to provide the basis for asymmetry and the foundations of quantum fluctuations and perhaps even human will.

TOUR #1. NEEDS EDITING. BENEFITS STATEMENT
REGARDING PRODUCTIVITY, INSIGHT AND OPTIMISM.
The universe is mathematically very small:
http://doublings.wordpress.com/2013/07/09/1/

TOUR #2. The very small scale universe is amazingly complex.
Assuming the Planck Length is a singularity of one vertex, consider
the expansion of vertices. By the 60th notation, of course, there are
over a quintillion vertices and at 61st notation well over 2 quintillion more
vertices. Yet, it must start most simply and here we believe the work
within cellular automaton and the principles of computational equivalence
could have a great impact. It’s mathematics of the most simple. We also
believe A.N. Whithead’s point-free geometries should have applicability.
Key references for more: http://doublings.wordpress.com/2013/04/17/60/

TOUR #3. This little universe is readily tiled by the simplest structure.
The universe can be simply and readily tiled with the four hexagonal plates
within the octahedron and by the tetrahedral-octahedral-tetrahedral chains.
Key references for more: http://bigboardlittleuniverse.wordpress.com/2013/03/29/first/

TOUR #4. And, the universe is delightfully imperfect.
In 1959, Frank/Kaspers discerned the 7.38 degree gap with a simple
construction of five tetrahedrons (seven vertices) looking a lot like the Chrysler
logo. As I said in the restaurant, we have several icosahedron models with its
20 tetrahedrons and call squishy geometry. We also call it quantum geometry
(just in our high school) and we guess, “Perhaps here is the opening to randomness.”
Key references for more: YET TO BE WRITTEN

Future tours: The Planck Length as the next big thing.
Within computational automata we might just find the early rules
that generate the infrastructures for things. Given your fermions and proton
do not show up until the 66th notation or doubling, what are we to do with those
first 65?

Start at the Planck Length, use base-2 exponential notation and the five Platonic Solids, and go to the Observable Universe in less than 206 necessarily-related steps

Larger image just below

Larger image just below

  1. Introduction. The Big Board-little universe  was first used in class on December 19, 2011. This Universe Table (a full-sized version is just below) began a year later for those same high school geometry classes. The big board measures 62″x10″ and it is just too big and awkward for desktop work.   The table is designed to be printed on 8.5″x11″ paper and displayed on a smartphone. Now, the origin of these two charts can be found by looking inside a tetrahedron and an octahedron. Half-sizes of both objects can perfectly fill each other. The question was asked, “How far can we go inside each by dividing in half over and over again?” The simple answer is, “Not very far.” Within 50 steps we were at the size of a proton. Within another 65 steps we were at the Planck Length. This particular table was created by multiplying the smallest possible length -the Planck Length- by 2 until we got to the edges of the Observable Universe. Distinguished scientists have helped us. One scientist calculated as few as 202.34 notations (doublings or steps) from the smallest to the largest. Another calculated 205.11.
  2. We use both figures. Within over 202 notations, here is a simple view of the universe, highly-ordered and structurally integrated from the smallest to the largest measurements of a length, all within a geometrically homogeneous group.
  3. Examples. Initially the examples came mostly from the Paul Falstad’s Scale. Then over the following year other objects of special interest to students were selected. Each should be within the range of the notation defined as no less than 50% smaller or no more than 50% larger than that particular Planck multiple.  As we go forward, every entry will have footnotes and links for further explanation and exploration.
  4. Exhausting. Today’s information glut is so chaotic and overwhelming, it seems that it actually depresses creative thinking.  So, our hope in sharing this simple little table is that students will feel empowered to search for new insights to understand this universe more deeply and as we do, to instill some optimism about our common future.
  5. Notice the first 66 notations. In light of the Planck Length doublings, this is rather new ground. Here, there are very few facts and many, many guesses. And, we believe that there are many more surprises to be found throughout this chart. One might readily conclude that all the surprises are new domains for research and study.
Small Scale
Speculations
Ideas
Concepts
and
Parameters

Boundaries
and
boundary
conditions

Trans-
forma-
tions

Human Scale

Numbers
and
Number
Theory
Forms
Order Relation Dynamics
Functions Continuity Symmetry Harmony

Large Scale

1
Planck Length
( ℓP )
Transition:
Small-to-Human Scale

1. Display area: Every number/word hyperlinked – quick results display here

2. Options: Open full screen, new tab or window to the research of the experts

3. Also: Related videos-images and online collaborations with up to nine visitors

4. Key Links: http://Universe-View.org and http://BigBoardLittleUniverse.org

Transition:
Human-to-Large Scale
205+
Observable Universe
2- 10
Forms1
Vertices:1024
77
Research
ℓP:2.44×10-12m
78
X-ray
Wavelength
95
Range:
Visible Light
96
Bacteria
Red Light
113
Hand-sizeH
16.78+cm
114
TextbookT
12.8+inches
131
Marathon
27+miles
132
54+ miles
87.99+km
204+
Observable
Universe
11-20
Structure-Ousia
V: 1+million
76
Gamma
Wavelength
79
Huang
Scale
94
Nanoparticles
100-10000+nm
97
Blood cellR
2.4+microns(µm)
112
Finger-size
3.3″(inches)
115
Things
67.134±cm
130
Race
21.998+km
133
Drive
108+miles
202-203+
Observable
Universe
21-30
Substances
V:1+ billion
75
Falstad
Scale
80
Periodic
Table
93
Gold LeafG
160.06±nm
98
Capillary
5.12+microns
111
Spoonful
4.19+cm
116
A child
52.86±in
129
Distances:
6.834+miles
134
Gravity-free
351.97+km
198-201
Superclusters

6.1-54+yottometers
31-40
Qualities
V:1+ trillion
74
Research
1.52+x10-13m
81
HydrogenH
31±pm
92
Nanowires
80.03±nm
99
Cells
10.24±microns
110
MakeupM
.82±inches
117
A bed
105.72±inches
128
Village
3.41±miles
135
Distance
437.41±miles
191-197
Virgo
Supercluster3
41-50
Relations
V:1+ quadrillion
73
Research:
Tunneling4
82
HydrogenH
78+ pm
91
Little chipslc
40.01+nm
100
Sperm
20.48+microns
109
LipstickL
1.04+centimeters
118
Bedroom
5.37+meters
127
Walk
1.7+miles
136
Fly
874+miles
181-190
Galactic
Group6
51-60
Systems
The MindM
72
NucleusN
7.63+x10-14m
83
CarbonC
70±pm2
90
Viruses
20.007+nm
101
HAIR
40+microns
108
DiamondD
5.2+mmM
119
Home
35.24+feet
126
Downtown
1.37+km
137
Rivers
2815.81+km
171-180
Milky
Way
61-65
Elementary
Particles
71
GoldAU
Nucleus

84
WATERW
3.12+x10-10m
89
Cell Wall
10+nm
102
Paper
81.95+microns
107
Ants
2.62+mm
120
Property
21.48+m
125
Superdome
687.45+m
138
USA-to-UK
3500+miles
161-170
SolarS
Interstellar
65-67
Neutron
Proton-Fermion
70
AluminumAl
1.90+x10-14m
85
DNAD
6.25+x10-10m
88
Insulin
5.00+x10-9m
103
EggE
.16+millimeters
106
Sand
1.31+mm
121
Yacht
142+feet
124
Skyscraper
343.7+meter+
139
EarthE
11,263+km
151-160
Solar
SystemS
68
HeliumHe
4.77+x10-15 m
69
Electron
9.54+x10-15m
86
Buckyballs
1.25+nm
87
Ribosomes
2.50+nm
104
>.< Period
.32+mm
105
Bacterium
.65+mm
122
Sequoia
85+meters
123
Tall Building
171.86+m
140
GPS Satellite
22526+km
141-150
Earth
Systems

THIS IS A VERY ROUGH DRAFT AND A WORK IN PROGRESS:
We recognize that there are many errors that have been imputed along this path.  These will be cleaned up by experts within a particular notation.

Links and references to the work of scholars within each notation,  1-to-205, will be added  such that every entry on this chart will be an active link.

On-going Investigations:  Distance between bonded hydrogen atoms,  diameter of a carbon atom,  and a better definition of the ranges within the small scale and large scale universe, i.e. 191-197: 48 zettameters-to-4.7± yottometers and the Local Galactic Group

Tunneling — a wild-and-crazy speculation: There may be parallel constructs whereby tunneling is part of the transformation
between primary scales, pre-particles to particles, particles-to-atoms, atoms-to-organics (ribosome), the stationary-to-mobile (sperm-egg),
and the human-scale to the large-scale (Einstein-Rosen bridges).

Could cellular automaton apply to the first 60+ doublings from the Planck Length using base-2 exponential notation to PRE-STRUCTURE things?

More than things, as in protons and fermions, could the results of cellular automaton be understood as Plato’s forms (perhaps notations 3-to-20) and Aristotle’s ousia (perhaps doublings 20-to-30)? Assuming the Planck Length to be a vertex, and assigning the area over to pure geometries, do we have the basis for form, structure, and the architecture for substances? Then, could it be that this architecture gives rise to an architecture for qualities (notations 30-to-40)? And, as we progress in the evolution of complexity, could it be that in this emergence, there is now an architecture for relations (notations 40-to-50)? If we assume an architecture for relations, could the next be an architecture for systems (notations 50-to-60) and this actually becomes the domain of the Mind? It is certainly a different kind of ontology given it all begins with cellular automaton and base-2 notation to provide a coherent architecture (with the built-in imperfections of the five-tetrahedral cluster also known as a pentastar). More: https://utable.wordpress.com/2014/01/20/osi/

#2 The Planck Length is the smallest; the largest length is the Observable Universe.

 

This may well be the first time you will have seen the entire universe notated on a chart, all numerically and geometrically ordered, in a very granular relation. It is a simple model that opens many questions.

The Planck Length is not a point because it has length. Points do not have length. And, if you were to multiply that length over and over again by 2, anywhere from 202.34 times to 206 times, you will be out to the largest possible length, the Observable Universe.

It is hard to believe, yet the simple math tells the story. This project uses that range, 202.34 to 205.11 because even though math can be exacting, our knowledge of the age of the universe is not.

By the way, these notations are already helping students to understand the relations between disciplines. There is a sense of real order where there was chaos.

We will be referring back to these two measurements throughout the next eight steps to discern some of the other surprises as well as many of the other questions that are raised. On each page there are the arrows and a line.  Below the lines there are references, links and informal discussions.  Please come back to those sections after you have gone through all ten pages.  So, let’s continue on and look a little further.

Pink Arrow Green Arrow

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Notes about Look-and-feel and Navigation:  If a little thumbnail of any picture is displayed, simply refresh your browser and the full-size version should paste in.  Also, if  any of the letters from right column, the Archives and Meta are bleeding through the image of the Universe Table, please open your window larger (possibly to full screen). Usually if you click on the last sentence in each description you will go to the next page.

More notes about the how these charts came to be:
The simple math
The simple conceptual starting points
An article (unpublished) to attempt to analyze this simple model. There are pictures of a tetrahedron and octahedron.
A background story: It started in a high school geometry class on December 19, 2011.
The sequel: Almost two years later, a student stimulates the creation of this little tour.

Wikipedia on the Planck length
Wikipedia on the Observable Universe

Key Surprises: First, just the very small number of notations was a surprise. When we started at one meter and got down to the size of a proton in about 50 steps (at that time, we were dividing each notation in half), it seemed hard to believe. Then, when we got in the range of the Planck Length in another 66 steps, it was puzzling.  When we went to the large scale and found only another 90 or so notations, we were flummoxed.

Consider notations 100 to 103. That range is right in the middle of the universe of sizes. ….in the middle! And, it is all so very, very human. How can it be that humanity is in the middle of this universe by length?

The universe divided in thirds. The old logic of the Small Scale, the Human Scale, and the Large Scale universe is in play, yet here the start points are quite different than the historical use of those terms. Here the very logical range for each is defined by simple math. What does it mean to look at the totality of the universe and it in thirds.

The simple geometries. If the Planck Length is defined as a single vertex at notation 1, by step 60, it becomes a major structural enterprise. The proton-fermion-electron appear to manifest at step 66. This small scale universe of geometry and numbers is unexplored. Perhaps it is the first step for a science and basic logic for perfected states within this continuum.

#4 Just fifteen steps up the scale to step 116, we find the child within.

116a

Human life starts right within that midrange, at Step 103, but we grow up and up into step 116, and just a few into step 117. The Planck Length has now been multiplied by 2, and each result by 2, over and over again, 116 times. This length is rendered here in inches (52.86) and meters (1.342864). Within this notation there are all kinds of very familiar things. We selected children to represent the category.

116ut

Think about the birth cycle. Growth in nine months usually renders an infant mostly within Step 113 and usually through a birth canal. Most of us hardly give it a thought. Yet there are parallel constructs throughout nature. By approaching the entire universe as an ordered set, a group that has well-defined subsets, we can re-examine our presuppositions one more time; and in a very new way, look for new insights to old enduring questions.

Key idea: Within this notation there are all kinds of very familiar things. We selected children to represent the category so you might suspend your judgment and become like a child.  Engage the entire universe like you have never done before today.  This discovery process will challenge your imagination and may press in on your belief systems.  Please remind yourself that all these numbers are the result of simple math —  multiplying by 2.  It is also the result of following embedded geometries within two of the most simple, pure objects known to our academic community.  We propose, and you will soon see, how these geometries pervade everything.   But first, our mea culpa.
Pink ArrowGreen Arrow

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Notes about Look-and-feel and Navigation:  If a little thumbnail of any picture is displayed, simply refresh your browser and the full-size version should paste in.  Also, if  any of the letters from right column, the Archives  and Meta   are bleeding through the image of the Universe Table, please open your window larger (possibly to full screen). Usually if you click on the last sentence in each description you will go to the next page.

Sizes:  The range for this notation goes from about 36 inches to 79 inches (6′ 7″ feet). So much of our life is within this notation. Each notation ranges from just under 50% larger than the Planck Length multiple  (115) in the smaller notation (2.20 feet or 67.134 cm) to just under 50% smaller than the Planck Length multiple (116) in the larger notation (105.72 inches). Boundary conditions between notations are a key part of this study.

#5 Our caveat: We are still at the very beginning of this study.

97

There are mistakes, but we hope  our intention  is clear.  We move to Step 97.

To represent this step we chose the diameter of a single cell of blood. It’s been said, “Blood is thicker than water” and it is.  The study of blood is called hematology. The study of the genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring is called heredity. .

97ut

Questions abound: What is blood? What within it makes it so very important to sustain and transfer human life? Why does blood manifest within this range (notation, step or layer)? Yes, though blood is four times smaller than a human hair, a water molecule is even smaller.

Key Idea: Each notation is important. Each has its own geometry and parameters, boundary conditions and transformations. There is a lot to study. We are inching along at the beginning of this study within this construct of the universe. Though this scale of the universe may not prove to be scientifically useful, heuristically it has already made a mark. So, let us move on toward the Planck Length by next going to a water molecule.

Pink ArrowGreen Arrow

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Notes about Look-and-feel and Navigation:  If a little thumbnail of any picture is displayed, simply refresh your browser and the full-size version should paste in.  Also, if  any of the letters from right column, the Archives  and Meta   are bleeding through the image of the Universe Table, please open your window larger (possibly to full screen). Usually if you click on the last sentence in each description you will go to the next page.